B1

I FECKENHAM, John de +1585-01-09

John de Feckenham was born of poor parents near the forest of Feckenham in Worcestershire from which he took his name, otherwise his real name was Howman. While young he was discovered to possess great natural abilities, which being perceived by the priest of the Parish, he was by the endeavour of one or more considerable persons taken into the noble Benedictine Abbey of Evesham. Soon after his profession he was sent by his Abbot to the University of Oxford to pursue his studies at Gloucester hall, where there was a particular apartment for the young Monks of that Abbey to lodge in whilst they pursued their academical and theological learning.

On his return to his Abbey, he went along with the stream, admitted the supremacy of Henry VIII and afterwards subscribed to the dissolution of his Abbey on November 17th 1539, for which he had an allowance from the exchequer of an annual pension of a hundred florins during his life. His love for learning induced him after this to return again to Oxford to resume his studies, until he was made Chaplain to Dr John Bell, Bishop of Worcester, by whose means he obtained a benefice in his own country. During the reign of Edward VI he admitted the Supremacy of the young King, but objected to the changes made in the administration of the Sacraments and was imprisoned in the Tower. Being a man of learning and well versed in divinity, he was allowed to leave his prison for a time, in order to dispute about matters of Religion. In five different public disputations he met the leading divines of the Reformers and defended the doctrine and discipline of the Catholic Church with ability and vigour. When they were concluded he was remanded to the Tower, where he continued till he was released on the accession of Queen Mary to the throne. He was now made Dean of St Paul's Cathedral. In 1554 he took part at Oxford in the public disputations on religion with Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer before they were cruelly burnt to death. In 1556 he was created Doctor of Divinity; and in November the same year he was appointed Abbot of Westminster and Chaplain to the Queen being in wonderful esteem for his learning, piety, charity, humility, and other virtues. During the persecution of the Reformers under this misguided Queen, he employed himself in doing good offices for the afflicted Protestants from the highest to the lowest; and on one occasion he interceded with the Queen for the Lady Elizabeth for which he incurred the displeasure of his Sovereign.

After Elizabeth had ascended the throne and determined to espouse the reformed creed, she was not unmindful of the services which the Abbot had rendered her during the reign of her sister; so she sent for him, having a great respect for his learning and virtuous life. When the messenger arrived he was busily engaged in planting elms in the garden of the Abbey and would on no account proceed to the Palace till he had finished this plantation. What was the real object of this visit never transpired. Some were of the opinion that the Queen offered him the Archbishoprick of Canterbury if he would conform to the changes in religion which were in contemplation; others that he and his Brethren might continue in possession of the Abbey if he would conform to her wishes, but he was no longer disposed as in former years, to admit the Supremacy of the Queen in ecclesiastical matters. When the changes of Religion were proposed in Parliament, he took an active part, as he was entitled as my Lord Abbot, to a seat in the house of Lords, in opposing the Queens Supremacy and the establishment of the reformed Liturgy [Feckenham's speech against the Act for conformity of common prayer is to be seen in Strype's Annals I part II Appendix No IX which is attributed by Burnet to Heath Archbishop of York] when these and other Acts were debated in the Upper House. On the passing of these Acts, the Oath of Supremacy was tendered to him as well as to all other Ecclesiastics. Upon his refusal to take it he was deprived and committed a prisoner to the Tower. The services which he had formerly rendered to Elizabeth and others, both rich and poor, ought to have entitled him to have met with lenity and kindness, now that power had passed into the hands of the Reformers. But his lot was cast on evil times when the spirit of bigotry and intolerance had stifled the nobler feelings of human nature. And to their disgrace this mild and compassionate man continued, during more than twenty years, to be tossed about from one prison to another, the sport and the victim of an intolerant government. In 1563 he was released from the Tower and committed to the free custody of Horn Bishop of Winchester, who is said to have dealt uncivilly and falsely with him. Having remained with him about a twelve month, he was remanded back to the Tower, thence after some time to the Marshalsea prison; then in 1574 to a private house in Holborn, but under bonds of appearance and to keep within certain bounds allotted to him; then in 1577 he was committed to the free custody of Cox Bishop of Ely, with whom, he proved an unwelcome guest [Cox to Burleigh. `That he (Feckenham) was a gentle person but in popish religion too obdurate... that he was fully persuaded in his religion which he will stand to. When I heard this I gave him over and received him no more to my table... Whether it be meet that the enemies of God and the Queen should be fostered in our houses, and not used according to the laws of the realm, I leave to the judgment of others. What my poor judgment is, I will express, being commanded. I think my house the worse, being pestered with such a guest. Yet for obedience sake I have tried him thus long.' Strype's Annals II part II 177]. Feckenham in 1578 had several conferences on religion with Cox at the desire of the Queen to try to induce him to acknowledge her Supremacy and to come to church. [See a true Note of certain articles confessed and allowed by Mr Feckenham. Strype's Annals II part II Appendix No XXIX] and finally in 1580 he was sent to Wisbech Castle where he was often treated with general harshness. At length this noble confessor for the faith of Christ after having seen many changes in religion, and after having repaired the weaknesses of his early life by a steadfast adherence to his religion, piously breathed his last in a good old age within the precincts of his prison at Wisbech. Camden tells us, `he was a learned and good man, lived a long while, did a great deal of good to the poor, and always solicited the minds of his adversaries to good will.' [See the Abbots life in Wood's Athenae I 506] His works are

II DYER, Thomas +1615

F Thomas Dyer a vowed Benedictine appears to have suffered at Norwich for his Religion in 1615. Mr Tierney Vol IV Appendix CLXXV has published the Letter of Colleton to Moore July 11th 1615 in which he writes, `Right upon our Easter there were twenty four Priests removed from Newgate and the Gate House to Wisbeach from whence three of them have since escaped. Two went free. Mr Peto a Benedictine and Mr Capes a Secular: the third, a vowed Benedictine, named Dyer, was taken again, two days after the escape and is now prisoner and in irons in the Castle of Norwich and by report is to suffer this next Assizes.' Bishop Challoner 169 tells us his name appears in Raissius's Catalogue published in 1630.

IIa BARKWORTH, Mark+1601-02-27

[I have not inserted the name of Mark Barkworth, who suffered at Tyburn February 27th 1601, in this Biography, because I do not believe he was a Benedictine. Dr Oliver in the Rambler Feby 1851 has produced a passage from More, in which Barkworth is made to say Profitetur se ex sancti Benedicti schola Monachum, qualis fuerat et Augustinus ille, qui a Magno Gregorio Missus, huic insulae fidem pro qua tum ipse patiebatur intulerat. Whence More derived his information we know not. But F Baker, who was a contemporary and had access to all the Records of the Benedictines, in his Work on the Mission 413 writes `Only there was one F Barkworth alias Lambert who suffered in Queen Elizabeth's days and has some dependence or relation to our Congregation of Spain as an Oblate, or Votary, or through some other Title; but he never lived nor was clothed in any of the Monasteries, nor had he his Mission from the Congregation, for as yet the Congregation had not gotten Faculty from the See Apostolic for Mission to England; but had his mission likely from some one of the English Colleges where he had been an Alumnus. He suffered at Tyburn in the year 1600 and in a Monastic Habit which by some means he had provided or gotten.' To me the fact of his being on the Mission appears decisive upon the point. If he had been a Benedictine he could not have been there as the Benedictines only obtained Faculties for the English Mission the year after his death. Neither have I inserted the names of Nicholas Sadler and Nicholas Hutton because F Baker was not aware of their being Benedictines (In Necrol on Feb 13 1610)]

III SAYER, Gregory or Robert +1602-10-30

Gregory or Robert Sayer was brought up in the University of Cambridge, but becoming a Catholic, he went through his philosophy in the English College at Rheims: thence he proceeded to the English College at Rome to study his Divinity and was there ordained Priest. As great divisions at this time existed in the College between the Secular clergy and the Jesuits, he withdrew from these contentions with the approbation of Cardinal Allen to join the Benedictines at Mount Cassino, where he took the Habit in 1588 and was professed the following year. He afterwards taught Divinity in that noble Abbey for several years; and when he had acquired a great name on account of his learning he was invited to St George's Monastery in Venice to hold the Professor's Chair in Divinity. As he, and the other priests who followed his example in joining the Benedictines of the Cass. Congregation, had taken an oath to go on the English Mission on becoming the alumni of the English College, they still entertained a hope, as far as might lie in them and stand with Gods will, of ultimately accomplishing their original design by proceeding to England as Benedictine Missioners. [F Baker on the Mission 406] Their Italian Superiors seconded their views and applied to the See of Rome for Faculties for their English subjects in 1594; but great opposition was raised against the Benedictines serving the English Mission, and the necessary faculties could not be obtained till the year in 1602... F Gregory had been designed to be the Superior of the Cassino Benedictines, who were to have proceeded to England, in case the See of Rome had granted them Faculties for England at the time they first petitioned for them, but he was never destined to see his native land more. In 1599 he dedicated to Pope Clement VIII his Work on the Sacraments and in the midst of his literary pursuits he closed his holy life on the 30th October 1602 at the famous Monastery of St George's in Venice. F Gregory was a man, who for the integrity of his life, the sweetness of his manners and his singular modesty in conversation, was grateful to God and all good men and one who by the benefit of his solid wit, correct judgment and happy memory arrived at a great height of learning. [F Baker on the Mission 408] His Works are [Dodd II 142] 1. De Theologia Morali viz De Censuris Eccl Paenis, Impedimentis Canonicis, &c lib 7 fol 1609 2. De Sacramentis in Communi, Venet 1599 3. Flores Decisionum, ibid ex Navarro 4. Clavis casuum conscientiae. Tom I Venet 1601 Item Tom II et III Venet 1605 5. Epitome Conciliorum, Navarri 6. Clavis Regia Sacerdotum 7. Summa Sacramenti Paenitentiae ex Navarro 8. A Treatise of Moral Divinity manuscript

IV DE STO FACUNDO, Austin +1605-01-20

F Augustine de Sto Facundo professed at the famous Monastery of St Facundus in the town of Sahagun in Spain paid the debt of nature January 20th 1605

V GERVASE, George +1608-04-11

F George Gervase born of a noted Family in Sussex, was educated in the English Seminary at Doway. After devoting eight years to study, he was ordained Priest and was sent upon the English Mission in 1604. There he laboured with great benefit to the souls of his neighbours for two years, he was then apprehended and sent with many other Priests into banishment. During his exile he made a journey of devotion to Rome to visit the tombs of the Apostles, and during his stay there, he petitioned to be admitted among the Jesuits; but this request was not acceded to, and he returned to Doway and resided for some months at his Mother-House. His brother designed to have him kept in Flanders, and had provided for him a comfortable subsistence at Lisle, to enable him to live remote from the dangers, which visibly threatened him, if he ventured to return to England: But, as he was under an engagement to serve the Mission and his heart and affections were there, he was not to be kept from it by the importunity of friends, or the fear of dangers.

Mr Gervase had already shown a desire to join a religious order, and when at Doway, he took the Habit of St Bennet at the hands of F Bradshaw, the Vicar General of the Spanish Benedictines: [F Baker on the Mission 447 Reyner Tract I 247] and then proceeded to pass his Noviceship in England on the Mission. Soon after his arrival he was apprehended and committed to prison. Here the new oath of allegiance was tendered to him which he refused. After a few weeks, he was brought to trial and was condemned to be hanged and quartered barely on account of being a Priest, and having exercised Priestly functions in England. He suffered at Tyburn with the faith, devotion, and courage of the primitive Martyrs in his thirty seventh year. [See Bishop Challoner's life CXLV] furentibus quidem lictoribus et ministris populo tamen nonnihil commiserante. [Doway Diary I 103]

VI SHERLEY, Andrew +1609-04-14

F Andrew Sherley professed at the Monastery of Najera in Spain and a Missioner of rare zeal and modesty ended his holy life in Lancashire on the 14th of April 1609 [Weldon I 35]

VII BUCKLEY, Sigebert or Robert +1610-02-22

F Sigebert or Robert Buckley was professed at Westminster Abbey during the reign of Queen Mary. On the change of religion under Elizabeth and the dissolution of his Abbey, he was imprisoned on refusing to take the oath of Supremacy and continued in confinement in one prison or another, during the whole of her long reign,which he survived. On the dissensions which arose on the appointment of an Archpriest, this venerable confessor signed a petition to Rome, in which he joined the Appellant Clergy, as they were termed, in their opposition to this novel form of Church Government [Tierneys Dodd III 48] On the accession of James to the throne this venerable patriarch was released from his prison at Framlingham and set at liberty, after a confinement of more than forty years. Soon after this Anselm Beech, a Benedictine of the Cassin Congregation, became acquainted with him at the house of Francis Woodhouse of Cisson near Wendlam, and from this period, he and F Thomas Preston, his Superior took him under their protection and became in the hands of Providence the happy instrument of enabling him to perpetuate the old Benedictine Congregation in England. The plan they ultimately adopted was to clothe some of the Secular Clergy on the Mission who wished to join their Body, and to profess them Members of the Cassin Congregation in presence of the venerable Buckley and then to resign them up to him in order that he might incorporate them as members of his former Abbey of Westminster by a formal instrument in the presence of several witnesses. The persecution, to which Catholics, however, were exposed on the discovery of gunpowder Plot, and the consequent imprisonment of the venerable old confessor, occasioned considerable delay; and three years elapsed before this important event was accomplished. At last on the Festival of the Presentation of our Blessed Lady, the 21st of November 1607, F Thomas Preston and his brethren accompanied by Robert Sadler and Edward Maihew, both Secular Clergymen who had finished their Noviceship on the Mission, and who were to make their Profession on that day, repaired to the prison of the Gate house in London. Here they met the venerable Buckley and the two Novices were professed in his presence as Members of the Cassin Congregation. He assisted in clothing them with his own hands; and after they were resigned up to him, he received and admitted them as Members of the Abbey of St Peter's of Westminster, imparted to them the rights and privileges which his Abbey formerly enjoyed and empowered them to admit others. This venerable Confessor was now ninety years old and the half of his long life he had passed in prison. He was nearly worn out with infirmities and age had dimmed his eyesight; but on that memorable day, he saw his beloved children, whom he had begotten in Christ as the heirs of his inheritance, and like another Simeon rejoiced his days had been prolonged to hand down to others the rights of his Abbey and Congregation. After this ceremony was accomplished he never saw more the light of heaven in this world, for he became quite blind. [Reyner Tract II 17 F Maihew apud Weldon I 20 writes Addam et istud mirabile, quod eo tempore accidit, Seni illi venerabili Seberto quamvis annis et miseriis fere confecto, visus non tamen absquealiqua caligatione, ad eum usque diem remenserat: at hoc opere perfecto statim effectus est caecus, necunquam amplius in hoc seculo lumen caeli vidit. Et quis ex hoc non arbitrabitur Deum oculorum visum ipsi reservasse, quoad usque filios monasterii sui haeredes oculis suis conspexisset. Quae mihi comperta sunt scribo, nam rei gestae interfui, imo eo ipso die ipse adhuc oculorum usu non privatus Professioni meae Monasticae adstitit, et unus fuit qui habitum mihi monasticum in professione imposuit.] He was afterwards released from prison and continued under the care of his own adopted children, who administered to his wants, soothed him under his infirmities, and, with friendly hands rocked the cradle of his reclining years. Under their fostering care his life was prolonged during three years. He surrendered up his soul to God on 22d of February 1610 at the advanced age of ninety three. The bigotry of the times would not allow him to be buried in the church yard, so he was interred in an old chapel or country hermitage near Pontshall, the seat of Mr Norton. [F Anselm Beech wrote to the General Chapter of 1633 See Acts August 2nd Anno 1603 ingressus sum in Angliam appulsus ad portam Yaremutham, ubi et totam hiemem permansi et in domo Domini Francisci Woodhouse Cissonensis prope Wendlam, incidi in RD Sigebertum Buckleum solum superstitem ex antiquis Monachis Westmonasterii quem pauculis ante mensibus Rex Jacobus e carcere Fromeghameo liberari jusserat. Ab eo tempore curam senis gessimus, ego et Dominus Thomas, usque ad ejus faelicem mortem qui contigit 22 Februarii anni 1610, et aetatis suae anno 93: quia autem non est concessum ut corpus ejus in caemiterio sacro collocaretur, replevimus cum in veteri quodam sacello, sive eremitorio campestri prope domum Domini Nortoni quae vocatur Pontshall in agro vel Surreyae vel Sussexiae. Optarem corpus ipsius posse transferri ad locum magis honorabilem: quia proculdubio senex optimus magni fuit meriti; qui 40 annorum persecutionem perpetuam pro fide Catholica sustinuit in aliquo semper carcere reclusus. Acts of Chapter Vol I 27]

VIII ROBERTS, John +1610-12-10

F John Roberts or Merwin of Merionethshire in Wales was an alumnus of the English College of Valladolid, when to avoid the contention which existed between the Jesuits and the Secular Clergy, he withdrew after great opposition from the Jesuits in company with John Bradshaw, to the Spanish Benedictines and took the Habit at the Monastery of St Martins at Compostella in 1598 where he was professed the following year and ordained Priest in 1600. When the Benedictines obtained Faculties for the English Mission in Decr 1602, he was directed by his Superiors to proceed to England in company with F Augustine Bradshaw, who was appointed Vicar General over him and others who were destined to follow them in the same glorious enterprise of labouring for the salvation of souls. On the persecution which followed the discovery of Gunpowder Plot, the Vicar General withdrew to the continent; but F Roberts, following the directions of his Superior, continued at his post, braving the dangers which threatened him in the discharge of his calling, and showing in his own person the willingness of the Benedictines, to share the perils of the Mission with their Brethren of the Secular and Regular Clergy. F John Roberts was a man of admirable zeal, courage, and constancy. During the period of seven years of his Missionary life, he was four times apprehended, imprisoned, and sent into banishment and as often returned, under the directions of obedience to fulfil at the peril of his life the duties of the ministry. His extraordinary charity shewed itself during the time of a great plague in London; where he assisted great numbers of the infected: and was instrumental in the conversion of many souls from their former errors and vices. He was apprehended for the fifth time at Mass on the first Sunday of Advent 1610 and dragged in his vestments to gaol; whence he was brought to trial and condemned on the Statute of the 27 of the late Queen, to suffer the death of a traitor barely for his Priestly character. He had the offer of his life, if he would take the oath of allegiance; but neither the example of Dr Blackwell, the late Archpriest, nor of others, who maintained the lawfulness of taking the oath, could influence him in his decision, because he considered he would contaminate his soul by taking an oath which had been condemned by the See of Rome, as containing many things contrary to faith and salvation: so he firmly declined the oath and died a martyr to what he deemed to be his duty. [Widdrington in his Work on the Oath of Allegiance dedicated to the Pope writes 251 `It is also certain, that although F Roberts did not publicly teach that the Oath was lawful, for that his Holiness by his Breves had declared the contrary, and had commanded the English Priests not to teach that it might lawfully be taken; nevertheless even until death he persevered in this opinion that there was nothing contained in the Oath, which was contrary to Faith or Salvation, neither would he put any scruple into the minds of his Ghostly children concerning the refusing of the same. For two principle reasons (as he hath often acknowledged to myself and others) he was persuaded that the Oath might lawfully be taken; the first was, for that he could not perceive, that those learned men, who had written against it, had hitherto sufficiently proved that it contained anything, which was contrary to faith or salvation. The other was, that when he was at Paris, he craved the opinions of two most learned Divines of that nation concerning the lawfulness of the Oath, and at length through his great intreaty, they gave him this answer; That they for their own parts had not hitherto observed in it any thing which might not be taken, and that scarce any subject of the King of France, as they thought, would stagger to take the like Oath, if it were by public authority commanded them under so great penalties. And that this is most true, he has divers times protested to me, and many others, and his own handwriting, which is kept even until this day, can if need require yield sufficient testimony hereof.] F Roberts was accompanied to execution by Mr Somers alias Wilson, a Secular clergyman of Doway College, who was condemned also to suffer the death of a traitor on account of his Priestly character. As Mr Somers was ascending the cart, from which F Roberts proposed to address the people, he gave him his hand saying, `welcome good brother', and then having embraced and blessed each other F Roberts turned to the people blessing them with a cheerful countenance, and with an audible voice, he said, `Audite caeli quae loquor, audiat terra verba oris mei' but he was interrupted by the officer in attendance, and could not continue his exhortation. He then said I am condemned to die; for that being a Priest I came into England contrary to a Statute made in the late Queens reign. Other matter was not objected against me at my trial. To the objection that he came into England without due authority, he replied that he was sent into England by the same authority, by which St Augustine the Apostle of England, was sent whose disciple he was being of the same order and living under the same rule, in which he lived, and that for the profession and teaching of that religion, which St Augustine planted in England he was now condemned to die. At last pronouncing these words, (after again blessing the people) Memorare novissima tua and a few pithy sentences he put the handkerchief over his eyes, and exclaimed, omnes sancti et sanctae Dei intercedite pro me and Mr Somers having exclaimed In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum they both passed to a glorious immortality Decr 10 1610. They were suffered to hang till they were thoroughly dead: then being cut down, they were beheaded and quartered and then cast into a pit with those malefactors, who had justly suffered the penalty of the laws. Two nights after F Robert Haddock one of his brethren with some other catholics dug up at midnight the quarters of F John Roberts, but being discovered, they dropt a part of his remains in order to secure the rest, which were conveyed to St Gregory's at Doway: one of his arms was sent into Spain to the Abbey of St Martins at Compostella. [See Challoners Life of F John Roberts No CXLVIII and also an account of this martyrdom Records No 1 page 1 of the 2nd Volume of this Biography.]

IX SCOTT, Maurus or William +1612-05-30

Maurus or William Scott [F Scott was born at Chigwell in Essex] was a gentleman by birth and bred up to the study of the Civil Law in Trinity Hall in the University of Cambridge. He was converted by reading Catholic books and went beyond the seas where he was for some time an alumnus of the English Seminary at Valladolid, until he joined the Spanish Benedictines. He was professed in the famous Abbey of St Facundus in the town of Sahagun, and afterwards being ordained Priest, was sent to labour on the Mission in England. Three days after his arrival in London, he was apprehended and thrown into prison, where he remained for about a twelve month, and was then sent into banishment; but he returned again to the Mission and was again banished. These attempts to labour for the salvation of others were made on several occasions and were always attended with imprisonment and banishment. On the last occasion he was in exile he resided for some time with his brethren at St Gregory's in Doway; but his zeal prompted him again to return to the labours of the Mission and he quickly fell into the hands of the government. He was brought before Dr Abbot the Bishop of London to be examined; he refused the new oath of allegiance, but neither confessed nor denied his Priesthood. The chief proof which was brought to show that he was a Priest was, that a fisherman had carried to Dr Abbot a little bag containing his breviary, a copy of his Faculties, with some medals and crosses which he had drawn out of the water and which F Maurus had flung into the Thames when he thought there was some danger of being discovered on passing up the river from Gravesend to London. This was afterwards given in evidence before the judges and upon this slight evidence, the jury brought in a verdict of guilty, which he no sooner heard, but he fell upon his knees and said with a loud voice, `Thanks be to God' adding that never any news was more welcome to him; and that there was nothing that he had ever wished for more in his life, than the happiness of dying for a good cause. Then turning himself to the people he said `I have not as yet confessed myself a Priest, that the law might go on its course; and that it might appear whether they would proceed to condemn me upon mere presumption and conjectures without any witness, which you see they have done. Wherefore, to the glory of God, and of all the saints in heaven, I now confess I am a monk of the order of St Bennet, and a priest of the Roman Catholic Church. But be you all witnesses, I pray you, that I have committed no crime against his Majesty, or my country; I am only accused of priesthood, and for priesthood alone I am condemned' The day after F Maurus was convicted Mr Newport, a Secular Clergyman, shared the same fate; they were both drawn to Tyburn together and there executed on Whitsun eve the 30th of May 1612. [See Challoner's life of F Maurus and an account of his martyrdom Records II Vol II page 18 of this Biography]

X MERRIMAN, Bede +1614-03-02

F Bede Merriman was professed of St Laurence's in 1610. He was afterwards a Conventual at St Gregory's, where he terminated his short life on March 2nd 1614, and was buried in the parish church of St Albin at Doway. [Weldon I 59 and the Annals of St Laurence's between Weldon 22 and 23]

XI EDMUNDS, Robert +1615-01-28

F Robert Edmunds a Secular Clergyman professed on the Mission was famous for his constant confession of the faith and his Apostolical labours. He died in the Gate House prison in London January 28th 1615. [Weldon I 59 and the Annals of St Laurence's between Weldon 22 and 23]

XII BROOKS, Joseph +1616-11-06

(xii) Br Joseph Brooks professed a Choir Monk at St Laurence's was taken early out of life before he was priested. He died November 6th 1616. [See St Laurence's Necrology]

XIII MINSHALL, Thomas +1617-07-12

F Thomas Minshall was admitted to the Holy Habit and professed on the Mission; he was diligent in the performance of his Apostolical duties and highly charitable to his neighbours. He paid the debt of nature at Harding Castle in Flintshire on the 12 of July 1617. [Weldon I 79]

XIV BRADSHAW, Augustine or John +1618-05-04

Augustine of John Bradshaw or White, a native of Worcester, was educated in the English Seminary at Valladolid. When owing to the dissensions which existed between the Jesuits and the secu)lr Clergy, he withdrew with John Roberts and joined the Spanish Benedictines: he was professed with his associate at the Monastery of St Martin at Compostella in 1600. In the course of a few years their example was followed by many of the alumni of the English Seminary who were professed in different Abbeys in Spain. As soon as his Spanish Superiors had obtained Faculties for the English Mission he was appointed Vicar general of the English Benedictines belonging to the Spanish Congregation, and directed to proceed to England with his early associate, to commence their Missionary labours. On the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, the Catholics were exposed to a violent persecution. Many of the Priesthood were sent into banishment, and F Bradshaw deemed it prudent to withdraw to the continent. From the experience, which he had gained during the three years of his Missionary life, he clearly saw that the Convents in Spain were too far removed from England and to answer the purpose of the Mission; so he determined to turn his exile to advantage by attempting to establish convents nearer to England. He was a person of great activity and of indefatigable industry, and his exertions was crowned with signal success. During the nine years he was Superior he was mainly instrumental in founding the two Convents of Dieuleward and Doway; and that of St Malo's was established during the term of his Superiority. On the disputes which arose in attempting to form the Union between the three distinct Congregations of Benedictines viz the Spanish, the Cassin, and the old English lately revived by the aggregation made through the venerable Buckley, F Augustine showed himself void of the prejudices of the Spanish party by agreeing to a Concordat in London with the Superiors of the other Congregations in 1611, which was soon after set aside by the Conventuals of Doway and Dieuleward both then belonging to the Spanish Congregation. The opposition which was raised against this single minded man appears to have prevailed in the Spanish General to supersede him in the Vicar Generalship a year before the time his office would expire. [Weldon I 59.173] F Leander Jones, the new Vicar General, was installed at St Gregory's on the 29th of September 1612 and F Augustine in obedience to the orders of his General began his journey to Spain on the 8th of the following October: probably this order was countermanded before he had proceeded far, because we find him leaving Dieuleward the same year to be an assistant to F Francis Walgrave Chaplain to the noble Abbey of Chelles.[Weldon I 59.173] He remained here until a new Convent was begun in Paris in 1615, when he was appointed the first Superior of the Convent, which was subject however to the jurisdiction of F Francis Walgrave according to the terms upon which it had been established by F Leander to proceed to the Monastery of Longueville near Dieppe of the Cluny order to undertake to reform it. [Weldon's Notes 107] Here this able man, who had rendered such valuable services, closed his useful life after having filled the office of Subprior for two years. He paid the debt of nature on the 4th of may 1618. F Francis Walgrave inscribed upon his tomb the following Epitaph:

D.O.M.S. Venerandae memoriae viro, Domino Johanni Bradshawo, dicto, Fratri Augustino de Sto Johanni Wigorniensi, Anglo Sti Martini Compostellae in Hispania Monacho, primo Gentis Anglorum a schismate post Stum Augustinum ejusdem Ordinis Apostolo, invictissimo Haereseon Protagonisto, vigilantissimo Monachorum Patriarchae, Augustissimo Missionis Benedictinae in Angliam auspici fausto felicique Disciplinae Monasticae apud Anglos Instauratori, sex eorum in Gallia Belgio et Lotharingia Collegiis et Conventibus institutis, qui quatuor Monachorum suorum in Anglia Martyrum, quinquaginta et amplius confessorum decennio quo Missioni profuit coronis insignitus, huic tandem loco, saeculi injuria, ruderibus suis obruto, planeque sepulto, Disciplinae Regularis neglectu obsoleto prorsus ac squallido, a clarissimo Domino de Bellieure ejusdem Priore commendatario expetitus, dum ille moenium hic de morum restitutione satagunt carus suis et Patriae ob insignem pietatem, clarus sibi et ordini ob praeclara facinoria, Deo atque Sanctis carissimus ob eximiam sanctitudinem. Suis, heu! praepropere ad luctum sibi ter feliciter ad coronam, vix biennio Suprioris functus officio de hac luce raptus est IV Non.Maii 1618 aet.suae 42. Nutu necnon sumtibus praefati clarissimi Domini pietatis atque gratitudinis ergo, ponendum curavit Frater Franciscus a Walgravio pii Patris humilis ex Habitu conversionis Filius indignus in officio Successor.[Weldon I 80]

XV WINCHCOMB, Anthony+1618-06-14

F Anthony Winchcomb de St Gulielmo was born at Henwick in Berkshire, and appears to have been a Secular Priest before he was professed of the Spanish Congregation at the Convent of St Gregory at Doway on March 21st 1614. As he was labouring under an exhausting disease and was fearful of being seized by the pest he was sent into England and there shortly after consummated his holy course under his paternal roof on the 14th of June 1618. [Prof St G 22]

XVI BECKET, Nicholas +1618-10-30

F Nicholas Becket was professed at the noble Abbey of Onia in Spain. Having laudably discharged the Office of Novice Master at Dieuleward [Weldon I 81 states that F Nicholas Becket had laudably performed the Office of Prior at Doway. There are no grounds to suppose that he was ever Prior. On F Augustine Bradshaw ceasing to be Prior of St Gregory's in 1612, F Leander Jones the new Vicar General acted as Superior of St Gregory's until F Rudesind Barlow was appointed the next Prior in 1614. See the Profession which took place during this interval in the Profession Book of St Gregory's in which F Leander is styled Superior. page 20] he passed to the Mission where he closed his Apostolical labours at Canke in Staffordshire on the 30th of October 1618. [Weldon I 81]

XVII GRANGE, Gregory +1619-04-18

F Gregory Grange was professed at the Abbey of St Martin's at Compostella and was esteemed one of the most gifted in human and divine learning of those who came from Spain. He reached London in 1607. [F Baker on the Mission 496] At the meeting of the Definitory in 1617 when the Union was agreed upon, he was elected the first provincial Elect of Canterbury, but as the Superiors then appointed were not to assume actual office until the Union was confirmed at Rome, which did not take place till Aug 23d 1619, he was not destined to fill the office being called from this world on the 18th of April 1619.

XVIII SADLER, Vincent or Robert +1621-06-21

F Vincent or Robert was born at a place called Colliers Oake in Warwickshire and was highly connected having Sir Walter Mildway, the Chancellor of the Exchequer under Elizabeth for his Godfather. His worldly prospects in life were great, but these he forsook on embracing the Catholic religion. He then bade adieu for a time to his native land and proceeded to Rome, where after he had studied for some years, he was ordained Priest by Pope Paul V and sent on the English Mission.

When F Thomas Preston, the Superior of the Cassin Fathers in England, contemplated the aggregation of some of his subjects to the old English Benedictine Congregation, Vincent Sadler was at the time desirous of joining the Benedictines and was admitted with Edward Maihew to the Habit on the Mission, and having finished their Noviceship, they were professed on the 21st of November 1607 of the Cassin Congregation in the presence of the venerable Buckley, who then aggregated them to the Abbey of St Peter's at Westminster, and so through them began the revival of the old English Congregation. [Reyner's Appendix No 1] In 1613 after F Leander the new Vicar General, had agreed to admit the members of the old English Congregation to an equal participation with the Spanish in the property of the Convent of St Laurence's, he was again aggregated to that Convent. [Weldon I 24]

In 1616 when F Anselm Beech, whom had succeeded F Thomas Preston as Superior of the old English Congregation, requested them to proceed to elect a Superior from their own Congregation. F Vincent was chosen President. The year following he was elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union which were unanimously agreed to. At this meeting he was nominated the first Provincial Elect of York, but was not to enter into actual possession of power over the members of the united Congregations until the Union was confirmed at Rome, which did not take place for two years. During this interval F Gregory Grange, the Provincial Elect of Canterbury, died, so that F Leander, the first President after the Union, at a meeting of the Definitors of the Congregation elected F Vincent Sadler his Successor, and he became in reality the first Provincial of Canterbury. This Father of most exemplary life and of singular industry had proceeded on his journey as far as London to attend the meeting of the first General Chapter, when he died of a most cruel fit of the stone on June 21st 1621. Maxima sanctitatis opinione post se relicta.[Weldon I 81]

XIX WINTER, Richard +1622-11-26

Br Richard Winter died at Doway on the 26th of November 1622

XX OWEN, Augustine +1623-08-08

F Augustine Owen, a Secular Clergyman, received the Habit in England and was professed of the Spanish Congregation for the Convent of St Gregory. He lived up to his profession for some years, but afterwards being enticed by worldly prospects, he abandoned his faith. He however returned to his duty and died in Yorkshire on the 8th of August 1623. [Profession Book St Gregory's 50]

XXI MALONE, Columban +1623-09-13

F Columban Malone was born in Lancashire, received the Habit from the hands of F Leander in the Monastery of St Remigius at Rheims for the Convent at Doway: and was professed of the Spanish Congregation on the 13 of September 1609. He was a person of most innocent life, of great example in all kinds of virtues and of claustral observances, rigorous in austerities towards himself, but most compassionate to others, and of most pleasing conversation. He passed from the offices of Professor of Philosophy and of Subprior at Doway and Secretary of the President in 1617 to the Priorship of St Laurence's at the Chapter of 1621, where in the second year of his government he saintlike slept in the Lord on the 13th of September 1623. [Weldon I 105 Prof of St G 10. Further note Feast of All Saints 1623 Weldon v Oliver]

XXII GREEN, Thomas +1624-08-08

F Thomas Green was professed at the Abbey of St Bennet's at Valladolid, and having spent some years in teaching school learning to his brethren and obtained the degree of a Licentiate in Divinity, he passed to the Mission. He suffered the hardship of imprisonment for many years and advocated the lawfulness of taking the oath of allegiance in writing, which he published, for which he received some favour from the crown. On January 25 1622 King James authorized the Archbishop of Canterbury to allow him to be removed from the Clink on account of his bodily infirmities and to reside anywhere within eight miles of London for six months, being bound to return within twenty days after warning was given to him. [Dodd II 482] He however made a formal recantation of what he had written upon the Oath of Allegiance before his death which took place on the 8th of August 1624. [Weldon I 106]

XXIII HAWORTH, Joseph +1624-06-24

F Joseph Haworth a native of Lancashire received the Habit from the hands of F Leander in the Monastery of St Remigius at Rheims for the Convent of Dieuleward on the 1st of August 1608 and was Professed the following year. [Weldon I 22 Annals] After residing for some time at Dieuleward and Doway, he was sent to St Malo's where he obtained the reputation of great sanctity. At the Chapter of 1621 he was appointed a Definitor Judge, but before the expiration of the quadriennium, he closed his holy life on the 24th of June 1624 and was buried in the chapel of our Lady at Claremont, where many diseased and infirm persons on visiting his tomb are said to have obtained their desired health and testified to that effect under their own hand and seals. [Weldon I 106]

XXIV STAPYLTON, Epiphanius +1624-07-25

Br Epiphanius de Sta Maria Stapylton the second son of Richard Stapylton of Carlton in Yorkshire was professed of St Gregory's on May 5th 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He was the first professed at his Convent after the Union. Having received Subdeacons Orders, he was ordered to repair to the Convent of St Edmund's, but died on his journey in a village near Perrone in Picardy on the 25 of July 1624.[Weldon I 106]

XXV LATHAM, Thomas Torquatus +1624-12-19

F Thomas Torquatus Latham was professed at the Abbey of St Martin's at Compostella. He proceeded to Doway to assist F Augustine Bradshaw in establishing a Convent there. He afterwards became Professor of Philosophy in Marchienne College and took his degree of Licentiate in Divinity. Being a profound scholar and a person of great note, he was elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union. At the Chapter of 1621 he was chosen President 2nd Elect and a Definitor Judge. He paid the debt of nature on the 19th of December 1624. [Weldon I 107]

XXVI MAIHEW, Edward +1625-09-14

F Edward Maihew was born at Dinton near Salisbury, of a very ancient family which had been great sufferers on account of religion. He was sent abroad very young and admitted a student in the English College at Rheims July 10 1583, where he remained seven years and afterwards spent five more at the English College at Rome. Soon after he was ordained Priest, he was sent on the Mission, where he laboured for twelve years. He was a man of great parts and learning, and being desirous to join the Benedictines. He was admitted to his Noviceship on the Mission by F Anselm Beech, and having made his profession, with F Robert Sadler, as a member of the Cassin Congregation in the presence of the venerable Buckley, he and his associate were then aggregated by him to his former noble Abbey of St Peter's at Westminster on the 21st of November 1607. [Pitreus in his life of F Maihew 816 says he received the Habit of F Sebert and did not leave England for six years after] This was the beginning of the revival of the old English Congregation. Soon after the Convent of Dieuleward became the common property of his and the Spanish Congregation, he was again aggregated to that Convent, and in 1614 was made Prior and professed several. [F Paulinus de Onia was Prior of St Laurence's on Septr 14th 1614. Prof Book St Greg 39] In 1617 he was selected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union which was afterwards confirmed at Rome in 1619. The following year a new Election of the Priors took place, and F Jocelin Elmer was appointed his successor in the Priorship; but as he was detained at St Malo's F Edward continued to govern the house till the meeting of the first General Chapter in 1621. He was then elected 1st Definitor Judge. [F Edward Maihew continued to reside at St Laurence's till he became Vicar] At the following Chapter he was elected Vicar of the Nuns lately established at Cambray, but he had hardly reached the Convent before he sickened and died on the 14th of September 1625 and lies buried in the Parish Church of St Vedast aged 55. [See Weldon I 132 and his life in Dodd II 401]

$XXVII TOUDELLE, Oliver or John +1626-01-08

Br Oliver or John Toudelle of Lancashire was professed a Choir Monk at St Laurence's during the Priorship of F Laurence Reyner, a very humble and obedient young man. He died in his Convent January 8th 1626 [Weldon I 147 says, `After many years spent as a Laybrother': 1. The name of Mr Oliver Toudelle appears in the confraternity of the Rosary at St Laurence's just before Mr Thomas Sadler's in 1621 so that he had not then taken the Habit. How then could he have spent many years? 2. The able necrology of St Laurence's does not term him a Laybrother and I prefer its authority to Weldon]

$XXVIII LE MUNIER, James +unknown

{In ms after XXXIV} James le Munier was born in Britany in France and took the Habit at Claremont on the 22d of November 1613 and was professed a Laybrother the year following for the House of St Malo. [Weldon I 85] His Prior petitioned the Chapter in 1633 for his expulsion which was deemed just and agreed to and the Prior and his Council were directed to carry this Decree into execution. [Acts Aug 16 1633 From the Acts of Chapter in 1621 we learn that it was decided that Br James Musnier propter incorrigibilitatem debere secundum statuta ab Habitu dimitti July 16th]

$XXIX ATROBAS, Francis +1626-06-10

F Francis Atrobas was professed at the Monastery {of Onia corr.PAA} in Spain, a man of mild disposition who after he had discharged the office of Novice Master was elected the first Prior of St Gregory's after the promulgation of the Union. After the Chapter of 1621 he passed to the Mission and after suffering imprisonments for his faith, this venerable confessor closed his life on the 10 of June 1626 {in Staffordshire PAA}.

$XXX BROWN, George +1618-10-21

F George Brown professed at the Abbey of St Sinbert in Spain was appointed for a short time Prior of St Laurence's, [Annales Sti Laurentii apud Weldon I 22 Dr Oliver in the Rambler March 1851 says he believes that F Brown was the Translator of the Life of St Mary Magdalen de Pazzis 1619. I think this will be incorrect] and on his removal by the Spanish General he was employed in promoting the new Convents of St Edmund's and St Gregory's. In 1612 F Leander the Vicar General employed him in treating with the Abbess of Chelle about serving her convent with English Benedictines, [See Record V 463 Vol I] where he afterwards piously ended his life on October the 21st 1618.

$XXXI HODGSON, Richard +1626-02-29

F Richard Hodgson de Sto Joanne was born at Grumond {sic} in Yorkshire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 11th of July 1614 of the Spanish Congregation during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He was afterwards sent to the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella where he died on the 29th of February 1626 not without great signs of sanctity. [Prof St G 32]

$XXXII RICHARDSON, Augustine or John +1626-03-04

F Augustine or John Richardson de Sto Benedicto was born in Somersetshire and entered the ministry as a Secular Priest; but wishing to embrace a Religious life he took the Habit in England on the Mission. During his Noviceship he was sent into exile and was professed at the expiration of his Noviceship at St Gregory's on the 31st of July 1618 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. This venerable confessor had been long detained in prison and had diligently employed himself in bringing many to the fold of Christ. He afterwards returned to the Mission and ended his days in London on March 4th 1626. [Prof St G 58 Weldon I 134]

$XXXIII HILTON OR MUSGRAVE, Placid +1626-02-20

F Placid Hilton or Musgrave, a Secular Priest, received the Habit at St Laurence's as a member of the Spanish Congregation on August 24 1609 and was professed at the usual time. He acted for some time as Superior at St Malo's in the lengthened absence of F Gabriel Gifford and proceeded to the Mission in 1618. He was a zealous and excellent preacher and was present at Hunsdon house in Blackfriars on the 24th of October 1623, when the floor gave way during the Sermon and occasioned the loss of about a hundred lives, and became a compassionate helper and comforter of the poor Catholics who survived the accident. He paid the debt of nature in Middlesex on the 20th of February 1626. [Weldon I 87.133]

$XXXIV VERNER OR FERMOR, Amandus +1628-11-20

F Amandus Verner or Fermor a native of Devonshire was a Secular Priest, who being driven into exile on account of his religion joined the Benedictines and was professed for St Laurence's. [See Acts of Chapter Vol I 47] He returned again to labour in the vineyard. After long imprisonments and other persecutions patiently suffered for the faith he died of a hectic fever in London on the 20 of November 1628. [Weldon I 147.85]

$XXXV ASHE, Edward +1629-02-19

F Edward Ashe de Sti Laurentii was professed at St Laurence's, a pious and religious man, and a singular promoter and preserver of fraternal charity. On the death of F Robert Sadler on June the 21st 1621, the Provincial of Canterbury , he was his successor till Chapter which followed soon after. He was elected the first Cathedral Prior Elect of Winchester in 1623 but did not live till these Cathedral Priorships were formally restored to the Benedictines by the Bull Plantata, and although his name appears in that memorable Instrument yet he had some years before it was granted, paid the debt of nature in Sussex in 1629 at Midhurst. [Weldon I 161 tells us he died in 1629. The necrologies in addition add on February 19. This is evidently an error because he attended the General Chapter in July 1629]

$XXXVI GIFFORD, Gabriel or William +1629-04-10

F Gabriel or William Gifford was born in Hampshire in the year 1554 and gave early proofs of future greatness. As his father died when he was yet in his infancy, the care of his education devolved upon his mother, and she placed him in 1569, under Dr Bridgwater, President of Lincoln College, Oxford. The Doctor, however, was soon after discovered to be a Catholic, and forced to surrender his Presidentship: his pupil was then sent to a school in the same town, kept by Dr George

Etheridge, who was privately a Catholic, and at that time enjoyed a high reputation for his general knowledge and for his skill in instructing youth. After young Gifford had spent four years at Oxford, his tutor accompanied him to Louvain, where he resumed his studies and obtained the degree of Master of Arts; he then commenced his divinity under the learned Bellarmin, but the troubled state of the Low Countries induced him, after four years application, to quit Louvain and go to Paris. An invitation which he received soon after his arrival from Dr Allen, President of the English Seminary at Rheims, brought him once more among his own countrymen. From Rheims, he was sent with other young men, to the English College at Rome. Here he completed his theological education, and obtained the character of an able divine, although he was little more than twenty two years of age. By the recommendation of Dr Owen Lewis, he was received into the family of Saint Charles Borromeo, where says Dodd `he learned those excellent lessons he afterwards practised especially charity for the poor,' which was extraordinary during the whole series of his life.

In 1582 he accepted an offer made to him by Dr Allen, to teach divinity in the College of Rheims; he therefore left Italy, joined the Doctor, and commenced his lessons on the 11th of July. To qualify himself for the degree of Doctor of Divinity, he maintained thirty six propositions concerning the sacraments at a public disputation, which was held at the palace of Cardinal Guise. Dr Allen was moderator; his eminence the Cardinal, four bishops and many of the nobility were present. At this disputation, he acquired a high reputation for eloquence and learning. He then took his degree at Pont-a-Mousson, in Lorain, on the 14th of November 1584 and taught divinity for upwards of eleven years at Rheims. Among his numerous scholars, he had the happiness of instructing several who afterwards suffered in England, martyrs for the Catholic faith. The great esteem in which he was held, made him a subject of suspicion to the English government; he consequently became prescribed, and was so watched by the pursuivants, that he never afterwards dared to appear openly in his native country. Providence, however, raised him powerful friends: Henry, Duke of Guise, governor of Champagne, and his brother Lewis, Archbishop of Rheims, became his patrons, and allowed him a yearly pension of two hundred gold pieces, which were regularly remitted to him until they were inhumanly murdered at Blois. After their death, he again returned to Rheims. Again, however, he was invited to Rome; for Dr Allen had been called to that city to retain him as chaplain and almoner. Some little time elapsed before Dr Gifford could arrange matters so as to quit Rheims without an injury to the College; he however joined his old friend and patron as soon as he could with propriety, and never after left him until his death. Through the cardinal's interest, the deanery of Lisle in Flanders, was at the recommendation of Pope Clement VIII bestowed upon him; this dignity he retained during ten years, but not without great difficulty; for Lisle was then in the power of the Spaniards; and the Doctor was attached to the interests of France. When he was dean, he kept open house, especially to all who were banished upon account of their adherence to the faith of their forefathers. Being at last obliged to quit his deanery, he retired to Rheims, where he was received with marks of extraordinary esteem and applause. He was appointed Chancellor of the University, and a Professor's Chair of Divinity was given to him; the Archbishop also, showed him peculiar marks of kindness, and bestowed upon him several benefices.

Dr Gifford had never sought preferments and he felt uneasy when they were bestowed upon him so he was resolved to quit the world entirely and to bury himself in the cloister during the remainder of his life. He had then attained the age of 54 and for thirty years had been the great ornament of the clergy.

For more than a year before this, the Collegiate Church of St Laurence's at Dieuleward had been made over to the English Benedictines to form a new convent, to enable them to train up members of their order for the English Mission; but owing to the poverty of the place little progress had been made in carrying out this beneficial design. As it was to this obscure place that Dr Gifford was wishful to retire, the Superiors of the Benedictines were encouraged to commence the Convent, trusting to the reputation of so great a man for their success in the undertaking; so that this Convent may be said to owe its actual commencement to the circumstance of his joining it. As it was not ready at the time for his reception, he took the Habit of St Bennet on the 11th of July 1608 from the hands of F Leander in the great Abbey of St Remigius at Rheims for the house of Dieuleward, which he reached in the following April to pursue his Noviciate under Dr Nicholas Fitzjames, who was his Novice Master. An anecdote which is said to have occurred at this period has been preserved. He had been sent to preach and not returning home in due time, he went into a garden to excuse himself to his Master, who was there at recreation with the Community. F Nicholas ordered him to prostrate himself though the ground was covered with snow, and then bidding him rise, he said to those around him `There lay the print of a Doctor' [Weldon's Notes 48] As soon as his year of probation was expired, he was privately professed, by the name of F Gabriel de Sancta Maria, in the Chapter House of that Convent, and gave up his books and a great quantity of household furniture to the House of his Profession. [Dodd in his life of Dr Gifford says, `he had already rebuilt and in a great measure founded the monastery at Dieuleward.' All that we know of the matter is contained in the following lines Anno revoluto 11 Julii 1609 F Gabriel de S Maria privatim in capitulo coram P Nicolas professus est hora circiter octava mane et reliquit Monasterio magnum numerum librorum et bonam suppellectilis portionem. Annales St Laurentii apud Weldon I 22] He was soon after nominated Preacher to the Duke of Lorraine and Prior of the Convent, although he must soon have resigned his Office for that of Regent of Studies. In 1611 F Paulinus de Onia the Superior of St Laurence's commissioned F Gabriel and F John Barnes to proceed to St Malo's in Britany with authority to accept a house, which had been offered to the Benedictines of the Spanish Congregation, and to receive whatever charities should be given to them. [Weldon I 83] The Bishop of the town was soon captivated with the eloquence of F Gabriel's preaching, and cheerfully sanctioned the establishment of a new Convent of English Benedictines in the town of St Malo's. F Gabriel was appointed the first Prior and laboured in the formation of this Convent till 1615, when he was called to Paris on other business by F Leander the Vicar General, and was generally detained there during the remainder of his Priorship which terminated on his promotion to the Episcopacy.

In 1617 he was elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union between the old English and Spanish Congregations. As the terms were agreed upon to the satisfaction of both parties, the Definitors proceeded to elect F Gabriel the first President of the united Congregation, but at the same time stipulated that all Superiors were to continue in Office until the Union received the sanction of the Holy See. Two years however passed before this auspicious event could be accomplished. In the interval F Gabriel had accepted the temporary Superiority of a new Convent of English Benedictines, which the noble Abbess of Chelles had begun in Paris, and for which she rented the Hotel of St Andrew's in the Suburbs of St James's until she provided them with a fixed settlement of their own. This convent was established on the express condition, that it should always be subject to the jurisdiction of F Francis Walgrave, the Chaplain to the noble convent at Chelles and to his successors. At this particular juncture the Lady died to whom the Hotel of St Andrew's belonged, and as the new owners wanted the House, F Gabriel removed his Convent to a house in suburbs of St Germains in the vicinity of the palace of Luxemburg, until the house which the Abbess had already purchased was made ready to receive his Community.

[Mr Tierney in correcting the statement of Dodd IV 100 Note, writes, `It was with this view, and under these circumstances that Dr Gifford, then lately consecrated bishop of Archidal, came forward in 1619, and at his own expense, erected the Monastery afterwards known as St Edmund's.' Bishop Gifford can claim no such merit. On his consecration in 1618 F Matthew Sandeford succeeded him in his Superiority over the Convent at Paris then occupying temporary residence in the suburbs of St Germains. On the Union being confirmed at Rome the year following, it was considered as F Francis Walgrave the Head Superior of the Convent was violently opposed to the Union, that he might induce the community at Paris to coincide in his views if they remained subject to him; and as he was personally obnoxious to the community, who refused to go to the house which the Lady Abbess had purchased for them, when it was said to be ready for their reception; so F Leander the President, with the advice of Bishop Gifford consented to allow them to remain where they were, and become independent of the Abbess of Chelles who upon this withdrew her support and protection. From Weldon's Notes 114 we are informed `that the Bishop at his own expense placed them in another House.' They had already removed during the time of his Superiority over them, and it was stipulated on his becoming Superior Ut omnia acquisita et acquirenda ab eo tempore Praesidentiae dictae cederent in emolumentum residentiae Parisiensis Weldon I 176 The real meaning of the above passage is explained by F Leander in his letter to F Berington April 19 1619 Record VII 10 `I wrote unto you from Rheims about our affairs, that my Lord and F Matthew Sandeford be content to yield up all into your hands. He adds, If F Gabriel come to Paris in any case let him have lodging in your house and all that you can do for him; he will not be chargeable unto you, but pay for what he takes, and what credit for us to refuse our chiefest Flower of our Garden.' So far then from Bishop Gifford having the merit of erecting the convent of St Edmund's it was in agitation not to allow him to take up his residence in the Convent. The Council Book of St Edmund's throws light upon the objections, which were raised against him. On the 16th of September, it was propounded `whether it was convenient to stay a trunk which was known to be F Matthew Sandeford's, who was then in the Bishops family, until such time as the said Revd F Matthew had given satisfaction of two hundred pounds English which he received the very day he should leave his office of Superiority, the said two hundred pounds being given to this house in alms. And it was thought convenient that the trunk should be stayed.' On the 1st of October F Bernard Berington propounded unto them, `whether he should deliver the trunk which he had stayed to the Revd Father Matthew Sandeford, seeing my Lord of Archidal writ for it, protesting as he was a priest that the said trunk was his; wherefore and also, because my Lord of Archidal promised that Fa Matthew should make accounts of the two hundred pounds to our most Rd father Fa Vicarius. It was thought convenient that the trunk should be delivered.' The Convent at Paris was compelled to leave their house at St Germains in 1624 and to hire another. And did not obtain a house of their own till 1642. From a paper given at the visit in 1628. Record XXXVI 118 the Convent only received from Dr G a pension of ten pounds for Br Aemilian Throckmorton a monk of St Edmund's]

The fame of F Gabriel as a preacher was in its zenith at this period. He was invited to preach in all the principal Churches in Paris, and Louis XIII with many of his nobility were frequently present at his discourses and were enraptured with his eloquence. The humble Benedictine became the topic of general conversation and he was generally known by the name of the Preacher.

[Addenda 633 No I: Dr Gifford constantly aimed at instilling loyalty into his hearers which then it seems was much out of fashion; so that some of his friends advised him to be more reserved and cautious upon that subject or otherwise he might come to be pistol'd for his pains. Some time after this, a person unknown came in a coach to the Convent of St Edmund's and desired to speak with him. When he came down he presented him a purse full of Gold desiring him to go on with his loyal sermons and so took his leave. The Father returning, told his Brethren that he had been pistol'd but then to put them out of pain he presently produced his purse of Gold. Hewlett 145. F Maihew in his preface to the Trophea Benedictinorum says Dr Gifford `et primum Prioris officium obivit.']

High preferment followed. Louis of Lorain commonly called Cardinal Guise, wanting a Coadjutor in the Archiepiscopal See of Rheims made choice of F Gabriel for that dignity, and he was consecrated on the 17 of September 1618 with the title of Bishop of Archidalia. In 1622 the Cardinal died and he became Archbishop of Rheims, Duke and first Peer of France. However there was something of design in his promotion in favour of the Guisian family. The dignity was intended for the second son of the Duke of Guise, as yet but a child, and therefore not capable of the Archbishopric of Rheims, so that he was placed in the See to prevent the son of any other nobleman of France obtaining it, and it was thought he was paid a considerable pension out of its revenues to the Guises. But however this case was, his promotion was to the General satisfaction both to the University and all the Diocese.

This excellent man behaved himself with the same indifference which had always appeared in his former days, in regard of temporal advantages. His revenues were abundant, for the commendatory part of the Abbey of St Remigius was bestowed upon him by the consent of the Pope and of the King of France. His great income enabled him to exercise hospitality, to be liberal to all English exiles and travellers, and to give liberal donations to poor but deserving individuals, even to the extent of one or two hundred crowns at a time.

He spent his time conformably to his character in preaching, catechising, inspecting discipline, and not withstanding his age and infirmities, for he had been attacked by a species of Apoplexy in his right side, he was indefatigable in complying with his Archieposcopal duties. He always wore his religious Habit, and kept Advent as a second Lent and observed the other fasts of his order. He was accustomed to rise in the night to prayer and frequently made use of the discipline. In the midst of his greatness, he never forgot his former Brethren. And when they were reviled and calumniated by false brethren, he generally came forward and rendered them essential service, by speaking and writing in their defence, and throwing the weight of his Archiepiscopal authority in their favour.

This great Prelate died on the 11th of April 1629. He had the benefit when young of receiving impressions of the most exalted virtue, while living in the family of the great St Charles Borromeo, and in maturer age of possessing the friendship of St Francis of Sales. On one occasion, when the Archbishop was at St Edmund's, and a young Priest was going to say his first Mass, it is recorded that he and St Francis stood on each side of the celebrant, whilst he was offering the august sacrifice of the new Law for the first time.

Dr Gifford was interred in his cathedral at Rheims, behind the high altar, without any epitaph or inscription; but by his own direction, his heart was delivered to the Benedictine nuns of St Peter's monastery, in the same city; it was taken with much solemnity, and buried in the choir before the altar of our Lady, with this inscription, without the date of the year or month: `Hic jacet cor Virgini Sacrum Illustrissimi ac Reverendissimi DD Gulielmi Gifford Benedictini Angli, Archieposcopli Ducis Rhemensis *Ac Non potuit uno totus condi sepulchro, dividi debuit mortuus, qui vixit utilis ubique: quod restat unicum unice et integre consecrat tibi, Virgo integerrima. Jacuit ad pedes tuos quod stetit semper hunana supra. Admitte munus religio D Benedicto sacra tuas enim ante infularum dignitatem cordi inserverat regulas, dignus tanti Patris Filius, cor cordi, reddit cum suum tibi donat. [Weldon I 553]

To conclude his biography, the Archbishop was mild to others though rigorous to himself. When some of his friends blamed him for his great corporal austerities, his answer was `'Tis nothing to what I have seen in my great master St Charles Archbishop of Milan'. The poor seemed to be his only care. He never appeared in the streets in his coach but they were in attendance, and his coachman was always ordered to stop that he might pay the bills which they drew upon him. As he neglected present applause so he was regardless of future fame. Though a second divine and a profound scholar, he has left few writings to perpetuate his memory. [Henry of Lorain son of Charles Duke of Guise born at Paris April 4th 1614 succeeded Dr Gifford in his Archbishopric, being only fifteen years of age when he was made Archbishop, which was per accessum but not being consecrated, he renounced it in 1641, about which time he succeeded his Father in the Dukedom of Guise and married. See his life Wood's Athenae II 453 Dodd II 359 Catholic Magazine III 305]

His works are,

1. Orationes Diversae. Spoken at the Inauguration of Albert and Isabella at Lisle: others before the Cardinals, Bourbon, Vendosme, and Guise, at Rheims &c

2. Sermones Adventuales; preached in French; made Latin by himself and published Rhemis 8vo 1625

3. Calvino Turcismus; a work begun by Dr William Reynolds, finished by Dr Gifford, Antw 8vo 1597

4. An Inventory of the Errors of Philip Mornay, Lord of Plessis; a Translation from Fronto- Ducaeus

5. A Treatise in Favour of the League, at the request of the Duke of Guise

6. Several Manuscripts, destroyed when the Monastery of Dieulwart was burnt.

$XXXVII BANESTER OR GAILE, Bede +1629-06-06

F Bede Banester or Gaile de St Magdalena born in Yorkshire was professed at St Gregory's October 11th 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He was a pious and laborious missioner and died in Northumberland June 6th 1629. [Weldon I 150 Prof Book of St Greg 86 See also Records I 71 where F Banester is styled de Sta Magdalene]

$XXXVIII TREMBIE, Celestine +1629-10-25

F Celestine Trembie de St Joanne was professed at St Gregory's for the Convent of St Malo's in 1614 and was taken off by an epidemic whilst he was rendering assistance to others suffering under the prevailing disorder at St Malo's on the 25 of October 1629 at the age of 38. [Weldon I 169-85]

$XXXIX GUILLET, Rupert +1629-10-28

F Rupert Guillet a Welshman was professed at St Edmund's Oct 18 1617 for the Convent of St Malo's where he was carried off with F Celestine in the performance of the same charitable duties by the prevailing epidemic on October 28th 1629 in his 34th year. [Weldon I 86-169]

$XL HANSON, Maurus +1630-03-15

F Maurus Hanson was professed in Spain and paid the debts of nature in the midst of his labours on the Mission on the 15 of March 1630 in Lancashire. [Weldon I 172]

$XLI EMERSON, Thomas +1630-09-30

F Thomas Emerson professed at the Monastery of St Facundus in Spain took his Degrees of Doctor of Divinity before he proceeded on the Mission, where after suffering imprisonment and banishments for the faith he was called to receive his reward on September 30th 1630 [Weldon I 170]

$XLII NORTON, John +1631-02-05

F John Norton a native of Sussex was professed at St Gregory's, on the 29th of September 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander, where he died happily on the 5th of February 1631 [Prof St G 109]

$XLIII HAMOY, Anselm +1631-02-12

Anselm Hamoy was professed a Laybrother at St Malo's September 23rd 1620 during the Priorship of F Paulinus Greenwood, where after serving his convent faithfully, he paid the debt of nature February 12 1631 [Weldon I 94.173]

$XLIV PRATER, Joseph +1631-05-25

F Joseph Prater was professed at the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella. A man of most exact life and of mild manners, he was elected the Provincial of Canterbury in 1621 the duties of which he discharged laudably. He died beloved by his brethren on May 25th 1631 [Weldon I 173 who says he was bis Provincialis Cantuariensis. I consider this incorrect. He was elected in 1621 and would not be reelected at the next Chapter because it was not usual at that time to bear the same office twice together. Besides F Mark Crowder is named as having been the Provincial on the Acts of Chapter in 1629 Weldon I 716]

$XLV FOSTER, Francis +1631-06-04

F Francis Foster, brother to the Countess of Stafford, received the Habit and was professed on the Mission. He was a venerable confessor enduring exile and imprisonments for the faith and of most wonderful charity to the poor, devoting himself and what he possessed in relieving their corporal and spiritual wants. He died at Stafford Castle June 4 1631 [Weldon I 173]

$XLVI HEATH, Augustine +1631-10-24

F Augustine Heath born at Winchester, was a Secular Priest before he was professed at St Laurence's. He was a man of great virtue and singularly patient. For a time he was employed at the Convent at Chelles; but retiring to the house of his Profession during the last years of his life he died there on the 24 of October 1631 in a good old age. [Weldon I 194]

$XLVII FRERE, Placid +1632-05-08

F Placid Frere was born in Essex and was professed at St Gregory's August 15th 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. A most worthy promising young man, who being sent to assist F Clement Reyner at the Monastery of Rintelin in Westphalia closed his short life on May 8th 1632 in the first year of his Priesthood. [Prof St G 105 Weldon I 194]

$XLVIII HAYWARD, Gregory +1632-06-27

F Gregory Hayward of the immaculate conception was born at Cockthorpe Oxfordshire and was professed at St Edmund's for the Convent of St Gregory's on the 28 of December 1621 [Council Book of St Edmund's 8] where he closed a short life on the 27 of June 1632 in the fourth year of his Priesthood in his 30th year.

$XLIX MUTTLEBURY, Placid +1632-07-06

F Placid Muttlebury was born in Somersetshire and was a Secular Clergyman before he was professed at St Laurence's. His pleasing qualities endeared him to his brethren and having lived many years in his convent, he happily closed his life in the midst of them in a good old age on the 6 of July 1632 [Weldon I 194]

$L BLAKESTONE, Michael +1632-11-09

F Michael Blakestone was born in the County of Durham and was professed at St Gregory's September 8th 1625. He was an organist and much given to musick. This young Priest on returning from a journey in company with F Jerom Porter fell a victim to a fever on the 9th of November 1632 [Prof St G 106 Weldon I 194]

$LI PORTER, Jerom +1632-11-17

F Jerom Porter was professed at St Gregory's in 1622 and died young at the Convent of St Gregory's of a fever on the 17 of November 1632. He published The Flowers of the Lives of the English Saints in 4to Doway 1632 [*Prof St G 106 Weldon I 194]

$LII DE LANDRES, Celestine +1633-01-14

Br Celestine de Landres a noble Lorainer abandoning his Barony was professed at St Laurence's during the Priorship of F Jocelin Elmer, but being sent to Doway to perfect his studies he died there in his youth on January 14th 1633 [Weldon I 194]

$LII SMITH, Maurus +1633-01-21

F Maurus Smith was born in London and was professed at St Gregory's on February 2nd 1625 during the Priorship of F Leander. He was cut off early in life and died in his convent January 21 1633 [Prof St G 112]

$LIII ARROWSMITH, Edmund +1633-05-27

Edmund Arrowsmith was born in Lancashire and was professed a Laybrother at St Gregory's on the 15th of June 1614 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow, having spent near twenty years in the service of his Convent he paid the debt of nature on May 27 1633 [Prof St G 28]

$LIV BAGSHAW, Sigebert +1633-08-19

F Sigebert Bagshaw was born of good family in Derbyshire and was a Secular Priest, before he was professed on the mission of the old English Congregation, soon after its revival through the venerable Buckley and was generally styled the Monk of Westminster. In 1613 he was aggregated with the other members of that Congregation to the Convent of St Laurence's at Dieuleward.

As the contentions arising from the attempt to bring about the Union were not likely to be amicably settled, His Holiness Paul V directed his Nuncio at Brussels in 1615 to require the Superiors of the three Congregations to send their Procurators to Rome, or empower those, who were already there, with ample powers to treat of the Union which was now determined upon as necessary by the Court of Rome. F Anselm Beech was continued as Procurator of the Cassin Congregation, Fr Benedict Jones as Procurator of the Spanish but he received positive orders from F Leander the Vicar General to agree to no Union unless the authority of the Spanish General was allowed over the United Congregations; and further that no member of the Spanish Congregation should be compelled to join it, but should only be prohibited from admitting others to their profession in future. And unless these terms were agreed to, he was instructed to inform the court of Rome that the Members of the Spanish Congregation would prefer to abandon the Mission altogether sooner than renounce their connexion with their Superiors in Spain. In this important crisis of the Benedictines F Sigebert Bagshaw was commissioned to continue at Rome to act as Procurator for the old English Congregation and was authorized to negotiate its affairs in future independent of the Cassin with the full concurrence of F Anselm.

To understand the position of the Benedictines at this period, it will be necessary to state that the numbers of the Cassin and the old English Congregations did not amount both together to a dozen Fathers upon the Mission. The latter Congregation derived its importance from professing exclusively all the rights and privileges which belonged to the Benedictines in olden times in England. The members of the Spanish Congregation amounted at least to seventy or eighty Fathers in number, and these held the exclusive profession of the property belonging to the two Convents of St Gregory's and St Malo and an equal right with the old English Congregation to the property of the Convent of St Laurence's. It was manifest, therefore, the Spanish Congregation was the most important and that no Union could be of service without it.

The Procurator, soon after meeting, discovered they were not likely to come to terms. The great bone of contention turned upon the admission of the authority of the Spanish General over the united Congregations, upon which F Benedict Jones insisted and which neither of the other two Procurators would agree to. In this state of things the court of Rome laid before them a proposition, which had been made before to his Holiness by the Missioners in England belonging to the Spanish party. These Fathers had requested his Holiness to direct all the English Benedictines residing out of Spain and Italy to elect nine Definitors, indiscriminately from the three Congregations by a plurality of suffrages, and then that these should meet together and fix upon the form of Union to be adopted; and when the terms were arranged, they should be presented to his Holiness for his final sanction. This proposition, however, plausible in appearance, was in fact placing the terms of the Union entirely in the hands of the Spanish party, because their numbers without any difficulty ensured them a triumphant majority among the Definitors. F Benedict Jones earnestly pressed its adoption. F Anselm strongly condemned it. F Sigebert at first sided with F Anselm, with whom he had hitherto cooperated but he was afterwards induced for the sake of peace and of bringing about a settlement of the question to give in his adhesion to it; but nothing could induce F Anselm to join them, so that the Court of Rome, following the advice of Cardinal Bellarmine, finally agreed that the Spanish and English Congregations should unite even though the Cassin Congregation should not agree to do so.

F Sigebert Bagshaw was afterwards selected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of Union between these two Congregations. And as soon as the terms were unanimously agreed upon, he was deputed to act again as Procurator at Rome to obtain the sanction of the Holy See to bring the Union to a final close. After a delay of two years he at last succeeded, and the present English Congregation was erected and confirmed by Paul V on the 23d of August 1619.

At the meeting of the first General Chapter in 1621 F Sigebert was elected Prior of St Edmund's, where he strenuously laboured in enforcing Claustral observances. But after three years of his government were expired, he was directed by Dr Barlow the President to leave his Convent and proceed to Rome as Procurator to transact some important business of the Congregation. [Council Book St Edm 23]

As none of those who were professed of the Spanish Congregation were compelled to join the Union, many declined to do so. But in this case the Spanish General required them to be subject to the President of the English Congregation, whom he appointed his Vicar General over them, and to obey the laws and constitutions of the new Congregation. This gave them great offence and was a source of great and long contention. Of the Fathers who opposed the Union the most, the two most prominent were F Francis Walgrave and F John Barnes, who maintained the Union to be null and void and in various publications published many calumnies against their former brethren, and left nothing untried to injure and to ruin them. F Sigebert, who was intimately acquainted with all that had passed at Rome regarding the question of the Union, rendered his Congregation great service by procuring the condemnation of the works of his two false brethren and by procuring not only the confirmation of the Breve of Paul V [Record XXVII 66] by which the English Benedictines were elected into one Congregation, but also another Breve, by which all those professed of the Spanish Congregation and who had not joined the Union were required to be subject to the President as the Vicar of the Spanish General, and to other Superiors of the English Congregation and to obey their laws as long as they were residing out of Spain. [See the Breve of Urban VIII Records Vol I 197]

But before this contention was terminated, as far as the authority of Rome was concerned, other matters of grave importance had turned up in England, which gave scope to his abilities and were submitted to his management. Dr Richard Smith, previous to his promotion to the Episcopacy, had expressed himself favourably disposed to the privileges of Regulars, and on that account had been warmly recommended to the Court of Rome, as the successor of Dr Bishop, the first Vicar Apostolic in England, who departed this life April 16th 1624: but no sooner had he been consecrated and reached England and had time to get settled than he convened a meeting of the Benedictines and Jesuits, and intimated to them his opinion, that no Regular could hear a Lay persons confession without the approbation of the Ordinary; and he afterwards insisted on his approbation being obtained in order to administer the parochial Sacraments of Baptism, Extreme Unction and Matrimony. A long and acrimonious controversy issued. President Barlow addressed a letter to his subjects, beginning with Mandatum in which he undertook to prove, that Regulars employed in England with Faculties from the Apostolic See were not bound to obtain the approbation of the Vicar Apostolic for the administration of Sacraments. This letter was extensively circulated and tended to raise a ferment among the laity against the real or supposed powers claimed by the Prelate. The Catholics were divided upon the merits of the controversy. The government for a time looked on, but at last issued a proclamation for the apprehension of Bishop Smith. The ferment continued among the laity, and a second proclamation appeared with an offer of an hundred pounds to any person who should apprehend him. Soon after this the Bishop felt himself unsafe and repaired to Paris where he continued during the remainder of his life to govern his flocks through his grand Vicars.

In the meanwhile, the distinguished Procurator of the Benedictines had laid their case before the Holy See; and after a contest of two years; he found the Court of Rome fully determined to support the rights and privileges of the Regulars and that the minds of the Cardinals were made up upon the question so that finding his stay in Rome could be of no further service he returned to his Convent at Paris in the autumn of 1628 to resume the Priorship to which he had been reelected at the preceding Chapter where he remained till the close of the quadriennium.

At the General Chapter of 1629 F Sigebert was elected President 2nd Elect, but as F Benedict Jones the 1st Elect President was prevented from leaving England to be installed at St Gregory's within the time limited by the constitutions, he forfeited his title to the Office, and F Sigebert became President and was installed January 26th 1630. Soon after this, he addressed a letter to his subjects and informed them that he had received certain information from Rome, that a final decision had been come to regarding the claims of the Vicar Apostolic, and called upon them to bury their past dissensions in oblivion. [Record XLIV 140] A year however elapsed before the Breve Britannia appeared, in which his Holiness Urban VIII declared, that the confessions which have hitherto been heard by Regular Priests were valid, and so shall be hereafter, without ordinary approbation.

The new President was engaged during the whole of his quadriennium in the arduous task of reducing those who had been professed of the Spanish Congregation and who had not joined the English Congregation, to submit to his authority; but neither the commands nor censures denounced by the Spanish General, nor the decision of the See of Rome, which required them to submit to the Superiors and laws of the English Congregation, were attended to, and several of these perverse Fathers persisted in their disobedience and set all authority at defiance.

As Chapter approached the constitution of this eminent man was rapidly giving way; he however managed to meet the assembled Fathers at St Gregory's and to open Chapter on the 1st of August and to assist for a time at their deliberations till his illness compelled him to withdraw. The day before his death he petitioned the Fathers that each conventual residence might be directed to say Mass and pray for a defunct President as if he were a Conventual of each Convent. This was agreed to as he was the common Father of the Congregation. [Acts 1633 August 18] He closed his useful life amidst the prayers of his brethren on the 19th of August 1633. He was buried in the Church of St Gregory with this Epitaph Sub hoc lapide requiescunt ossa RAP Sigeberti Bagshaw Congregationis Anglicanae OSB Praesidis Generalis, obiit religiosissime dum celebrationi Capituli Generalis incumberet Duaci, in hoc Conventu S Gregorii 19 Aug 1633 [Weldon I 195]

$LVI LODWICK, Laurence +1633-10-13

F Laurence Lodwick [F Laurence Lawick was born at Osmotherley in Yorkshire] was professed at St Laurence's in 1620 during the Priorship of F Jocelin Elmer. A man of weak constitution but industrious and charitable in helping his neighbours. He died on the Mission at Stoke in Gloucestershire on the 13 of October 1633 [Weldon I 211]

$LVII KEMBLE, William or Walter +1633-10-23

F William or Walter Kemble was born in Herefordshire and was professed of St Gregory's on the 1st of October 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He proceeded to the Mission and was stationed at Faunehope in Herefordshire where he continued till his death on October 23d 1633 [Prof St G 82]

$LVIII BLANDY, Boniface +1634-03-22

F Boniface Blandy was professed at the Monastery of St Facundus in Spain. A man of singular piety and of a most religious conversation. He never proceeded to the mission but acted for many years as Procurator of the English Congregation in Spain and died at Madrid on March 22d 1634 [F Baker on the Mission 518]

$LIX LATHAM, Gabriel +1635-03-31

F Gabriel Latham of Lancashire was the first person professed of the Convent of Edmund's on March 31st 1622 during the Priorship of F Sigebert Bagshaw. He acted as Procurator of his Convent and was sent for a time to assist F Francis Walgrave at the Priory of La Celle, where he was drowned on the 31st of March 1635 in endeavouring to save the life of a boy who was perishing in the waters. [Weldon I 245 who places his death in January 1634 which is incorrect because he attended a Council of St Edmund's on the 13th of October of that year. He is mentioned as being dead in the next Council August 13 1635]

$LX THOMPSON OR PRATT, Felix +1634-04-02

F Felix Thompson or Pratt [F Felix was born in Northampton Weldon I 85] a Secular Clergyman, who had been forced into exile on account of his religion, was professed of the Spanish Congregation in October 1614 during the Priorship of F Gabriel Gifford at St Malo's. This venerable confessor, who had endured imprisonments for the faith, having filled the Office of Novice Master at his own Convent and then at the Convent of Chelles and Paris, returned again to the Mission where he paid the debt of nature on April 2d 1634 in Staffordshire [Weldon I 85.245]

$LXI GAIRE, George +1634-11-21

F George Gaire was professed at St Laurence's; but having joined F Francis Walgrave at the Convent at Chelles, he took part with him for a time in opposition to the Superiors of the English Congregation. After he had been professed more than five years, he began to doubt the validity of his former Profession and consented to make his vows a second time as a member of the Cluny Order under F Francis Walgrave, who styled himself the humble Prior of St Pancras [of Lewes, Sussex] which had been one of the most famous Convents of the Cluny Order in England previous to the suppression of religious Houses under Henry VIII. Being now his subject, the humble Prior directed him to ask for Faculties to preach, from the Bishop of Paris. Some few years after this F George began to have misgivings about his second Profession, probably after the ignominious dismissal of his Prior from the Convent at Chelles, and petitioned the Abbot of Cluny to return to the English Congregation. His request was granted, and he proceeded on the English Mission where after having suffered imprisonments and exile for his religion he at last closed his life in London on November 21t 1634 [Record XIV 36.37 Weldon I 245]

$LXII DANVERS, Romuald +1634-08-15

F Romuald Danvers was born in Suffolk and was brought up in the Church of England, and became a Minister of that Church and obtained a living well endowed. But after his religious principles were known to be favourable to the Catholic religion, he was examined by the Bishops of the established Church, and was deprived of his Benefice and thrown into prison, from which he was afterwards released and sent into exile. He proceeded to the Secular College at Doway and was ordained Priest. He afterwards joined the Benedictines at St Gregory's and was admitted to his profession on the 24th of June 1620. He ended his days at the Convent of St Malo's on the 15th of August 1634 and was buried at Claremont. [Prof St G 72]

$LXIII ATKINS, Maurus +1635-03-10

F Maurus Atkins de S Maria was born at Outwell in Norfolkshire and was professed of the Spanish Congregation on the 22nd of July 1614 at St Gregory's during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. This exemplary and virtuous man afterwards acted as Cellerarius in his Convent, but owing to his bodily infirmities, he was sent upon the Mission where he laboured till his death on the 10th of March 1635 [Prof St G 38 F Maurus's christian name was William]

$LXIV EDNER OR RIGGE, Justus +1635-04-23

D Justus Edner or Rigge was professed at the Monastery of St Bennet's at Valladolid. His learning and talents were admitted, and he was elected President at the Chapter of 1625; but he not only declined to take Office in the English Congregation, although directed by Breve of Urban VIII and commanded under precept by the Spanish General to do so. As late as 1633 he is specially named in a mandate of the Spanish general among the five refractory Benedictines, who would not submit to the orders of his predecessors, and is again ordered under a formal precept of obedience and under a penalty of incurring the greater excommunication to acknowledge in writing, without any tergiversation or fraudulent intention, the President as his Vicar General, and to admit the jurisdiction of other Superiors, and that he was bound to live in subjection to the laws of the English Congregation. And in case he disobeyed this precept he declared him to be suspended from the Altar and from the exercise of all Missionary faculties; and further ordered him to repair within three months to the Convent of his profession in Spain. Whether he pertinaciously held out and set the orders of his legitimate and undoubted Superior with the majority of the others who were named as refractory with him, we have now no means of ascertaining. [See Record LXI 224 The last time F Justus Edner is named in the documents which have come into my hands is in the Acts of Chapter August 21 1633 when F Benedict Jones was deputed to proceed with him in tractatu reconciliatorio] He certainly remained on the Mission and died suddenly in Oxfordshire on the 23d of April 1635 [Weldon I 246]

$LXV CURRE, Maurus +1635-06-20

F Maurus Curre de S Joanne of Sandonfee in Berkshire was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 13th of July 1614 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. Being sent to the Mission in England, he was banished by the Kings edict, but returned again to the Mission, where he remained at his post until his death in Oxfordshire on the 20th of June 1635 [Prof St G 34 Weldon I 247]

$LXVI ALLEN, John +1635-06-30

F John Allen was born in Middlesex and was professed at St Gregory's on August 25th 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. He closed a short life in his Convent on June 30th 1635 [Prof St G 107]

$LXVII JONES, Leander or John +1635-12-27

F Leander or John Jones better known as F Leander de Sto Martino, was born in London, though originally of a family at Llan Wrinach in Brecknockshire. He was educated in Merchant Taylors' School, whence he was elected a scholar of St John's College Oxford in 1591, being at that time 16 years old, and soon after became Chamberfellow there with William Laud who was afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. On leaving the University, he entered in a jurists place, applied himself diligently to the study of Civil Law, took the degree of Batchelor in that faculty and was made fellow of the College. His religious conviction however now led him to the Catholic religion, so he left the College, his friends and country and proceeded to Spain where he was professed at the Benedictine Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella about 1600. It was at this time he dropt his surname according to the practice of Monachism in that country, and took that of a Saint and was ever afterwards called F Leander de Sto Martino. [See Wood's Athenae II 603]

F Leander now pursued his studies at Salamanca, and after taking the degree of Doctor of Divinity, he was directed by the Spanish General to join the other English Fathers of the Spanish Congregation in England. [See Record I 1] As he took his journey through France, he was most earnestly entreated at the Abbey of St Remigius at Rheims to stop a few months in order to train their Novices in piety and learning, which he did to their great satisfaction. On reaching Doway he joined his brethren and acted as Master of Novices in 1607, and was employed also in delivering catechetical discourses in Marchienne College. In 1612 he was appointed Vicar General over all the English residing out of Spain. In the long contest which followed respecting the Union of the different Benedictine Congregations employed on the Mission, he necessarily from his Office took a prominent part and showed himself strongly addicted to the interests of the Spanish party and shared in all their prejudices against the old English Congregation, which had been lately revived. In 1613 he proposed what is termed `the union of four articles' in which it was stipulated that the Fathers of the English Mission should unite during the schism into one body under the name of the Spanish Congregation: yet that this Body should comprise within itself twelve persons in whom all the rights of the old English Congregation should be preserved; that it should not be lawful to increase that number and that when any of these twelve persons died the Vicar General should nominate others from the Spanish Congregation to fill up their places; and finally that the monks of the Spanish Mission who did not return to Spain when the schism in England ceased, should then form and be styled the English Congregation; but until that time came, they should be really of the Spanish Congregation subject to the Spanish General. The terms of this Union were approved of by the General Chapter in Spain, and agreed to by a large majority of the Spanish party in England, and were accepted by F Robert Sadler in the name of the old English Congregation. [Record V 681] But as doubts were raised as to the real meaning of some of the articles, its publication was suspended. In the mean time a copy had been forwarded to Rome to F Anselm Beech, who had been lately elected the Superior of the Cassin and of the old English Congregations, in place of F Thomas Preston, who owing to his troubles about the oath of allegiance, had been obliged to resign his authority. This eminent man strongly objected to these articles of Union. He considered it highly dishonourable that the English Benedictines should form a Spanish Congregation, subject to a foreign Spanish General, when there had been for centuries in his native land an independent English Congregation, so he exerted the influence which he possessed in virtue of his new Office over the members of the old English Congregation who had agreed to the articles, and induced them to recall their consent; and succeeded in preventing a Spanish Congregation being established in England. Thus in the eleventh hour the English Benedictines, who now glory in the independence of their Congregation, were prevented from bearing the name of a foreign Congregation and from becoming the vassals of a foreign General. And the name of F Leander was rescued from the ignominy which must for ever have attended it, if he had succeeded in carrying this disreputable Union.

On the election of nine Definitors in 1617 to draw up the terms of Union between the Spanish and old English Congregations, F Leander was the first on the list, and as soon as the terms were agreed to, he was elected President 2d Elect, but as Dr Gifford the 1st Elect President was promoted to the Bishoprick of Archidalia before the Union was confirmed at Rome, the honour of becoming the first President of the present English Congregation devolved on F Leander and he assumed office in 1619 as soon as his Holiness Paul V had confirmed the Union and erected the English Congregation.

On the meeting of the first General Chapter, as it was not usual at that period for Superiors to be reelected to the same office F Leander became the Prior of St Gregory's and professed twenty eight Choir Monks during his Quadriennium. At the Chapter of 1625 he was appointed first Definitor Judge. At the following Chapter he was again called to the Priorship of St Gregory's and received a special mark of the regard of his Body in being elected the first Cathedral Prior of Canterbury. At the Chapter of 1633, the last which he lived to attend, he was again called to the Presidentship and was elected Abbot of Cismar [F Leander had been elected Abbot of Cismar at the preceding Chapter in 1629 see Acts of Chapter Vol I 56] which at that time the Benedictines had the prospect of getting into their possession. In the following year, this eminent man had the satisfaction of seeing the Congregation firmly established by Urban VIII in his celebrated Bull Plantata which was published by St Gregory's on the 23d of April 1634.

F Leander was noted for his extraordinary eloquence, for his general information on all arts and sciences, and for being a great master of the Oriental languages. Though he was employed for many years in public life, yet he contrived to discharge the office of public Professor of Divinity and Hebrew during twenty four years either in the College of Marchienne or in that of St Vedast.

It is frequently that F Leander was invited into England by Dr Laud the Archbishop of Canterbury his old acquaintance, and that he proceeded to London in the spring of 1634. But the real object of his journey was to execute a difficult commission to which he had been appointed by the Court of Rome. The marriage between Charles I and Henrietta of France had produced a correspondence of courtesy between the King and the Pope. And after the long continued disputes between the Secular and Regular Clergy, it became a matter of great moment with Urban VIII to be put in possession of the real state of things in England, so he took this favourable opportunity of selecting F Leander for his piety, learning and experience, and of sending him to England as the credited agent of Rome. Perhaps it was an injudicious appointment. F Leander had been a party in the late contest with Bishop Smith about Faculties: he had all along been residing at St Gregory's with Dr Barlow the President and as Definitor had agreed to the letter beginning Mandatum which had given so much offence and he must have felt the delicate position in which he was placed. His statements regarding the Oath of Allegiance and his rejection altogether of the deposing power of the Pope gave offence and his Mission proved a failure.

Soon after this he fell sick, and after a long protracted illness, he closed his long and useful life in London in his seventieth year on the 27th of December 1635. He was honourably buried in the Chapel of the Capuchins at Somerset House, which had been consecrated four days before for the service of the Queen. So he was primitiae dormientium ibidem. [F Baker on the Mission 518]

His books are

1. Sacra Ars Memoriae ad Scripturas Divinas in promptu habendas memoriteraque ediscendas accommodata. Duaci, 8vo 1623

2. Conciliatio locorum Communium totius Scripturae. Duaci, 1623

3. Biblia Sacra 6 vol Folio cum Glossa Interlineari. Published by F Leander's care

4. Opera Ludovici Blosii. Published by Father Leander

5. Arnobius contra Gentes cum notis. Duaci 1634

6. Apostolatus Benedictinorum1626. The 3 {MS corr} Tract was compiled by F Leander and the whole was penned in Latin by him

$LXVIII BEECH, Anselm +1635-12-28

F Anselm Beech, better known as Don Anselmo of Manchester, was born in Lancashire and was a Master of Arts at Cambridge, before he became an alumnus of the English College at Rome where he was priested. Owing to the dissensions which existed between the Jesuits and the Secular Clergy and their disputes which distracted the College this gave judicious and stayed {sic} man was recommended by Cardinal Allen to the Benedictine Convent of St Justina at Padua, where he was professed about the year 1591. For twelve years after this he devoted himself to literary pursuits until his Italian Superiors obtained Faculties for their English subjects for England. He then proceeded to his native land in company with F Thomas Preston his Superior, to commence his missionary life. Soon after his arrival in 1603, he became acquainted with F Sigebert Buckley, the only surviving monk of the Abbey of Westminster. As he and his Superior were well versed in Canon Law, they were not long before they began to treat with the venerable old man about aggregating others to his Abbey of Westminster and so hand down to posterity the rights and privileges of his Abbey and Congregation. Having obtained the consent of their Italian Superiors to bring about this design, they at last after many delays accomplished it, by professing Robert Sadler and Edward Maihew on the 21st of November 1607 as members of the Cassin Congregation in the presence of the Venerable Buckley and in allowing him then to aggregate them to his Abbey of Westminster. [Reyner's Appendix No I]

About this period, F Anselm after having laboured successfully on the Mission for four years, [F Aug Baker on the mission 516 writes of F Anselm, `I never knew any man in mission, whom for my part I should have judged fitter for the Mission than he was all qualities considered: nor do I know any man that succeeded better for the good of others for the time he was there.'] proceeded to Rome to act as Procurator for the Benedictines generally and especially for those of his own Congregation. When the Benedictines of the Spanish Congregation were threatened with expulsion from Doway in 1608 in consequence of the machinations of the Jesuits, F Anselm met the unwarranted and malicious charges of F Robert Persons and proved to the satisfaction of the Court of Rome that he and the other Priests who had left the English College some twenty years before, were undeserving of the character which was attempted to be fixed upon them; and obtained the confirmation of the Benedictine establishment of St Gregory's which Abbot Cavarel was erecting. The year following he obtained the confirmation of the revival of the old English Congregation by Paul V but this was only by word of mouth. It was not before December 24th 1612 that his Holiness published his Breve formally ratifying all that had been done and supplying all defects by his Apostolic authority. [Reyner's Appendix No III No VIII]

In 1613 F Anselm succeeded F Thomas Preston as Superior of the Cassin and old English Congregations. And although F Leander the Vicar General of the Spanish party had already obtained the sanction of F Robert Sadler and of the majority of the members of the old English Congregation to what is termed `the Union of the four Articles' by which a Spanish Congregation of Benedictines would have been erected in England, [Reyner's Appendix No XIX page 18] yet F Anselm induced them to withdraw their consent and succeeded in defeating this untoward measure.

To supersede the Union of four Articles F Anselm drew up the terms of a new Union, by which {Layout expanded}

{1} All English Benedictines, who had been professed either in Spain or Italy, were to agree to resuscitate the English Congregation and were to be considered members of it as long as they were employed on the Mission; but they were to continue revocable from the Mission at the pleasure of their foreign Superiors.

2. All who had hitherto been professed out of Spain and Italy were to be incorporated into the English Congregation and all in future were to be professed of that Congregation.

3. The Italian and Spanish Congregations were to cede all title to houses and goods which they possessed out of their provinces of Italy and Spain to the English Congregation.

4. The Spanish General Chapter was to be allowed the prerogative of naming a Spanish Monk to be Superior of the Convent of St Gregory and of Marchienne College at Doway, who upon entering Office was to swear on the Holy Gospels to govern his subjects in the name and according to the Holy Rule and Constitutions of the English Congregation; and lastly

{5.} Although the President of the English Congregation, who was to be triennial, was to enjoy an ordinary jurisdiction; and the members of the Congregation were to be immediately subject to him, yet he was to have dependence on the Cassin and Spanish Congregations through the Procurators in the Roman Court, who were jointly to manage the affairs of the English Congregation.

{6.} And no solicitor was to appear at the Roman Court without their knowledge and consent and the President was to lay before them the state of the Mission every two months to be placed before his Holiness. [Reyner Appendix No XXXV]

F Anselm embraced a favourable opportunity of laying the terms of this Union before the two foreign Procurators of the Spanish and Cassin Congregations residing in Rome. These officials, observing several articles inserted which had been agreed upon before on both sides, and not being fully acquainted with the real state of the controversy, were easily won over by him to consider his articles of Union highly advantageous and to join him in presenting them in the name of the three Congregations which they represented to the Holy See to be confirmed. The unanimous petition of the three Procurators was deemed a sufficient guaranty to the Court of Rome that these Articles of Union were approved of by their respective Congregations and they received the confirmation of Paul V. The terms of this Union were then despatched to the Nuncios at Paris and at Brussels, who without delay forwarded them to the Convents in France, in Belgium and in Lorain and strictly commanded them to be put in execution. These Articles of Union were admitted by the Prior and Convent at Dieuleward and by F Francis Walgrave, the Prior of the Monks serving the Convent at Chelles. But Dr Gifford Prior at St Malo's, who was then preaching at Paris, applied to the Nuncio for permission to defer giving his consent to these Articles until he had conferred on the matter with F Leander the Vicar General who was then residing at Doway. The result of the matter was, the Articles were not agreed to by the Spanish party: and F Leander was ordered by the Spanish General in virtue of holy obedience to go directly to Rome himself, or to send a confidential person without delay, to procure the dissolution of this Union. F Benedict Jones was sent as his Procurator to Rome. He was soon after followed by F Sigebert Bagshaw, who was also deputed by the members of the old English Congregation, to cooperate with F Anselm his Superior in advocating the Union and in opposing F Benedict to rescind it. After the Court of Rome had attentively heard and duly weighed the reasons on both sides his Holiness Paul V passed a decree on the 3d of October 1614, in which he suspended the execution of the Union, and commanded those of the Spanish Congregation who had already accepted it, to return to the obedience of F Leander the Vicar General.

Soon after this his Holiness directed his Nuncio at Brussels to require the Superiors of the different Congregations to send new Procurators to Rome, or furnish those already there with ample powers to treat of the Union, which was now determined upon as necessary by the Court of Rome. The former Procurators were continued with this important difference that F Sigebert Bagshaw, with the full concurrence of F Anselm appeared now with full powers to negotiate the affairs of his own Congregation independently of the Cassin, to which the old English Congregation had always hitherto been subservient. For a time F Sigebert continued to act in union with F Anselm, but at last he separated from him and agreed to a proposition which had been submitted to their consideration by the Court of Rome, and which was strongly advocated by F Benedict Jones, and they both gave in their adhesion to it, and requested his Holiness to direct all the English Benedictines residing out of Spain and Italy to elect nine Definitors indiscriminately from the three Congregations by a plurality of suffrages, who should then draw up the terms of the Union and finally submit them for approval to the see of Rome. But F Anselm foreseeing that this arrangement would necessarily place the united congregation under the authority of the Spanish General, would by no means agree to it. And as no arguments or entreaties could shake his resolution or induce him to join the other two Procurators, the Court of Rome finally agreed, that an Union between the Spanish and old English Congregations should take place even though the Cassin Congregation should never join it. [The decree of the Nuncio says, Reyner's Appendix No XXII Sanctissimus decrevit ut fiat unio, sicut inter duarum Congregationum Monachos haectenus concordatum est, atque conventum licet tertia congregatio adhuc non concordet.]

The nine Definitors met at the Convent of St Andrew's in Paris on June the 1st 1617 and after having unanimously agreed on the terms on which the two Congregations were to coalesce together, they again deputed F Sigebert Bagshaw to Rome to obtain the confirmation of the Union. Great opposition was raised against it from different quarters. F Anselm opposed it on the ground that the new English Congregation was made subject to the Spanish General; and although he was offered an equal participation in its advantages if he would only join it, yet he and the other members of the Cassin Congregation spurned these advantages, when they were only to be purchased at the price of surrendering the independence of a Congregation, which had never been subject to a foreign General. The Union was finally carried, and the English Benedictines were erected into the present English Congregation by the Breve of Paul V on August 23d 1619 and the members of the Cassin Congregation never joined it.

[The proemium to the Constitutions of 1784 will have taught many to believe that the English Congregation was formed out of three distinct Congregations: whereas it was only formed out of two. The Breve of Paul V Ex incumbenti Reyner's Appendix No XXV says, pro parte, Congregationis Hispanicae et Anglicanae; again, Quod omnes Monachi Anglici dicti Ordinis Congregationis Hispanicae et Anglicanae coalescerent in unum corpus. If any doubt rests upon this matter it is cleared up by what is inserted in the Acts of Chapter of 1653 Sept 13th in answer to a letter from F Gregory Hungate at a time when nearly all the members of the Cassin Congregation had paid the debt of nature Quoad 2m autem Articulum scilicet de dispositione bonorum Monachorum Congregationis Cassinensis qu{od} praetendebat virtute unionis inter illorum et nostra{m} Congregationem ad Missionem pertinere et proinde petebat ut non applicaretur alicui particulari Residentiae, censuerunt Patres nullum jus aut titulum a nobis praetendi posse ad eorum bona virtute alicujus unionis, qu{ia} nulla intercessit. Atque ideo si isti Monachi Cassinensis de ipsorum bonis reliquerint in usum, vel conventuum, vel missionis, vel etiam singulorum quorumcunque Religiosorum cum gratitudine ex nostra parte accipiendum.]

The course which these events had taken present a striking instance of the uncertainty of the part, which man has to act on the stage of life. The very men who had exclusively the merit of reviving the old English Congregation through the means of F Sigebert Buckley, and who had always advocated with great disinterestedness, the necessity of perpetuating it, ultimately stood aloof and never joined it, when it became amalgamated with the Spanish; because they would not submit to the degradation of sacrificing its independence. Whereas the members of the Spanish Congregation, who for years had done their worst to annihilate it and to extinguish its very name, became the founders and promoters of the present English Congregation. [Reyner's Tract II 22 Appellamus hic solum conscientias ipsorum Cassinensium, et maxime D Anselmi a Mancestria qui adhuc Romae vivit, an non expresse et serio egerit Procurator noster, quicquid in ipso fuerit ut Congregatio Anglicana tanquam contentionum seminarium extingueretur penitusque supprimeretur.]

F Anselm survived the heat arising from these contentions and lived long enough to learn, that the members of the English Congregation, had already begun to repent of allowing the Spanish General to have authority over them: and had his days been prolonged some years longer than they were, he would have witnessed the Fathers of a General Chapter expunging the very laws which made them subject to the Spanish General, and which had given rise to all the strife and contention in past years.

This great and eminent man lived to a great age; but becoming extremely old, he returned to the Monastery of St Justina, the House of his Profession, and retained to the last his attachment to the venerable Buckley who had rendered such a signal benefit to the English Benedictines. He wrote to the General Chapter 1633 to inform the Fathers where the body of the old patriarch had been buried and to request them to remove it to a more honourable place as without doubt he had been gathered to his Fathers full of merit.

[See Note 2 page 10 {sv Sigebert Buckley, which reads} F Anselm Beech wrote to the General Chapter of 1633. See Acts August 2nd Anno 1603 ingressus sum in Angliam appulsus ad portam Yaremutham, ubi et totam hiemem permansi et in domo Domini Francisci Woodhouse Cissonensis prope Wendlam, incidi in RD Sigebertum Buckleum solum superstitem ex antiquis Monachis Westmonasterii quem pauculis ante mensibus Rex Jacobus e carcere Fromeghameo liberari jusserat. Ab eo tempore curam senis gessimus, ego et Dominus Thomas, usque ad ejus felicem mortem qui contigit 22 Februarii anni 1610, et aetatis suae anno 93: quia autem non est concessum ut corpus ejus in caemiterio sacro collocaretur, replevimus cum in veteri quodam sacello, sive eremitorio campestri prope domum Domini Nortoni quae vocatur Pontshall in agro vel Surreyae vel Sussexiae. Optarem corpus ipsius posse transferri ad locum magis honorabilem: quia proculdubio senex optimus magni fuit meriti; qui 40 annorum persecutionem perpetuam pro fide Catholica sustinuit in aliquo semper carcere reclusus. Acts of Chapter Vol I 27]

F Anselm piously closed his life on the 28th of December about the year 1635. [F Aug Baker finished his Work on the Mission in January 1636 at that time he tells us 516 that he was dead. The Necrologies place his death on the 28th of December]

$LXIX WILLIAMS, Anselm +1636-01-08

F Anselm Williams was professed at St Laurence's about 1623 during the Priorship of F Columban Mallon. After serving his monastery several years, he was sent with Br Leander Neville to assist a Lady of quality in Lorain and was met by certain soldiers belonging to the heretical army of Saxon Weymar and was cruelly murdered with his associate and in hatred of their religion they were hanged on a tree in the wood in their religious Habits on the 8th of January 1636. [Weldon I 250]

$LXX NEVILLE, Leander +1636-01-08

Br Leander Neville was professed at St Laurence's in 1628 during the Priorship of F Laurence Reyner and was cruelly murdered by the army of Saxon Weymar on the 8th of January 1636. [Weldon I 250]

$LXXI CRAFFE OR GROVE, Dunstan +1636-03-27

F Dunstan Craffe or Grove appears to have been professed at the Nunnery of Chelles under F Francis Walgrave, whose cause he afterwards espoused; but after his expulsion from the Nunnery by the Noble Abbess, he applied to the Fathers of St Edmund's to be received amongst them. This was agreed to provided he brought his discharge from F Francis Walgrave and from the Order of Cluny in order to avoid all future contention. [The Council of St Edmund's Aug 8 1631 says `he should be received a novice for this house, but so that he must do his Noviciate at Dieuleward... and if he persevere to make his profession, we give our consents that he enjoy his years of habit, accordingly as he was vested first by F Francis Walgrave, provided that the Regiment do likewise give their consent.' This Father was afterwards stationed at Jouar a great Nunnery of the Benedictine Order in France. [Weldon I 250] The time of his death is uncertain. [The Necrology places the death of F Dunstan Craffe on the 27th of March 1636 but this is incorrect as he was living in 1637 - See Records Vol I 696] {PAA adds} He was surnamed Dunstan the Fat.

$LXXII EDMUNDS, Bernard +1636-04-01

F Bernard Edmunds a Kentish man was professed of St Laurence's before the Union. He was a zealous practiser of religious poverty and obedience and was sent away by his Superior to avoid the pestilence which was raging in his Convent and in the town of Dieuleward, but he died on April 1st 1636. [Weldon I 83.250]

$LXXIII D'ORGAIN, Benedict +1636-05-11

F Benedict D'Orgain born of noble parents in the town of Dieuleward was professed at the Convent of St Laurence's before the Union. Being afterwards sent to assist in establishing a new Convent at St Malo's, he was there promoted to the Priesthood. He was a great admirer of universal abstinence from fleshmeat and a most punctual observer of St Bennet's Rule which he endeavoured to practise to the letter. He preached most zealously in the villages and brought many by his powerful doctrine and example, and wrote several devout Books in the French language for the use of the poorer sort of people. At last to avoid the wars he went to the famous Monastery of Cluny with leave of his Superiors where he died not without opinion of great sanctity on the 11th of May 1636. Weldon I 83.250]

His works are

1. Exercitia quotidiana seu Breviarium devotionis Anno 1621

2. Exercitationes devotas seu Diurnale Precationum cum Calendario SS Ord SPNB &c Anno 1622

3. Instructiones Christianas et Catholicas 1624

$LXXIV MARTIN, Boniface +1636-07-04

Br Boniface Martin born in London was professed at St Laurence's. He was in Deacon's Orders [The name of Boniface Martin appears in the Confraternity of the Rosary at St Laurence's in 1620 yet the Necrologies state he was only a Deacon.] and was the companion of F Benedict D'Orgain in his journey to Cluny. This brother died in the famous Monastery of La Charite belonging to the Cluny Congregation on July 4th 1636. [Weldon I 250]

$LXXV BENNET, Alexius +1636-08-03

F Alexius Bennet was originally a Protestant and a soldier, and owed his conversion to F Robert Sadler who sent him to the Convent at Dieuleward where he was professed before the Union. This exemplary religious man and zealous observer of monastic discipline was carried off by a contagious pestilence, which raged in his Convent, on the 3d of August 1636 [Weldon I 251]

$LXXVI FOSTER, Joseph +1636-08-07

F Joseph Foster of Yorkshire was professed about 1630 at St Laurence's during the Priorship of F Jocelin Elmer. He was noted for his great self-denial and was cut off by the prevailing pestilence in his Convent on the 7th of August 1636 [Weldon I 251]

$LXXVII PHILIPS, Aldhelm +1636-08-15

F Aldhelm Philips of Herefordshire was professed at St Laurence's about the year 1620 during the Priorship of F Jocelin Elmer. This perfect pattern of religious obedience, having caught the same pestilential disease in his Convent, placed himself upon his couch and with his own hands closed his eyes and so patiently and quietly surrendered up his soul to God on the 15 of August 1636 [Weldon I 251]

$LXXVIII JERNINGHAM, Bennet or Anthony +1636-08-31

Br Bennet or Anthony Jerningham was nobly born and was professed at St Laurence's about 1624 during the Priorship of F Laurence Reyner. He was in Subdeacon's orders when he was carried off by the same pestilential disease on the 31st of August 1636 [Weldon I 251]

$LXXIX INGLEBY, Robert +1636-09-06

F Robert Ingleby was professed at St Laurence's during the Priorship of F Jocelin Elmer in 1626. This zealous practiser of humility and charity was swept away by the same pestilence on the 6th of September 1636 [Weldon I 251]

The five last named died one after the other of the plague amidst their own and their brethren prayers most religiously and piously being all strengthened with the last Sacraments which their worthy Prior F Jocelin Elmer with his own hands most carefully administered to them.

$LXXX HELME, Bede +16nd

F Bede Helme of Montserrat was professed in the Benedictine Monastery of that name in Spain and was elected the first Provincial of York. He was a man of weak constitution but strong and zealous to help his neighbour in his corporal and spiritual wants. He paid the debt of nature in 1636 in the County of Durham. [Weldon I 150] [In Necrology Jan 24]

$LXXXI SMITH, Bennet or Edward +1637-07-21

F Bennet or Edward Smith of the most Holy Trinity was born near Whalley in Lancashire and was a Priest at the Seminary of Seville before he was professed at the Convent of the Holy Cross attached to the Nunnery at Chelles in 1617, during the Priorship of F Francis Walgrave. [Prof Book St Greg 44] He joined the English Congregation and was a man of most religious conversation. [1618 Nov 16] He proceeded to the Mission [Records Vol II of this Biography. He was Vicar of the Nuns in 1623.] and was soon after appointed tutor to A Brown the son and heir of Lord Viscount Montacute with whom he travelled to Spain. He was elected a Definitor Judge at the Chapter of 1629 and the first Cathedral Prior of Chester at the Chapter of 1633, and died at Madrid on the 21st of July 1637, being sent there as Procurator to manage the affairs of the Benedictines with the Spanish General.

$LXXXII FURSDEN, Cuthbert or John +1638-02-02

F Cuthbert of John Fursden was professed at St Gregory's [The name of F Cuthbert Fursden is not entered in the Profession Book of St Gregory's but Weldon says he was professed at Doway. F Cressy tells us apud Weldon I 294 that F Augustine Baker when he lived in the house of Mrs Fursden induced his eldest son afterwards F Cuthbert to follow his example of prayer and he became a most exemplary recollected Religious man living in great abstraction both in his Convent and on the Mission] and was noted for his punctual observance of Claustral discipline whilst he resided in his Convent. He proceeded to the Mission in the South Province and was appointed Chaplain to Lady Falkland after her conversation to the Catholic Faith; and after the death of Lord Falkland in 1633 he had the happiness of witnessing the conversion of most of the members of her noble family. He died Chaplain to her in London on the 2d of February 1636. He was born at Thorvorton in Devonshire. The Life of St Bennetand the Rule was translated by CF of the Holy Order of St Benedict.

$LXXXIII INGHAM OR WALMESLEY, Wulstan or Richard +1638-08-19

F Wulstan or Richard Ingham or Walmesley was professed at St Edmund's on December 26th 1630 during the Priorship of F Placid Gascoigne. He was ordained Priest in 1634 and was appointed Master of Novices in 1636. This promising young man died prematurely on the 19th of August 1638 [Coun B St Edmund's 60.63]

$LXXXIV GORDON, William +1638-09-14

F William Gordon a Scotch Benedictine, who was probably aggregated the English Congregation, died at St Edmund's on September 14th 1630 [Weldon I 254]

$LXXXV JONES OR PRICE, Benedict or William +1639-10-19

F Benedict Jones de St Facundo or William Price a native of Wales was professed at the Monastery of St Facundus in Spain. During the contention about the Union at Rome, he acted as Procurator for the English members of the Spanish Congregation and by the able manner in which he discharged the duties of his Office he earned the confidence of his party, and was afterwards elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union.

This eminent Father claims the merit of being the first mover and promoter of the Convent of Nuns which was established at Cambray. He escorted Miss Moore and seven other young Ladies to Doway to bring about this object, which he had so much at heart and which had received the cordial sanction of the Superiors of the English Congregation. Having waited to see them settled in a temporary residence at Cambray until the house which was intended for them was made fit for their accommodation, he left them under the charge of the President and returned to England.

At the Chapter of 1629 he was elected President, but being a prisoner under the sentence of death at the time, [See Records Vol I 312] he was under the necessity of foregoing this high Office, because he was unable to present himself at St Gregory's to be installed within the time prescribed by the Constitutions. [Record XL 134 says he did not come ex inevitabili impedimento. Weldon I 269 says he was Vicarius RA Praesidis in Missione designatus et Praeses electus. Neither of these offices are mentioned in the Acts of Chapter 1639 at which elections took place.] At the Chapter of 1633 he was elected Cathedral Prior of Winchester. He was Chaplain to Lady Falkland during the latter period of his life [Council Book of St Edmund's] and probably consummated his course in her service on the 19 of October 1639. He had suffered imprisonments for the faith and had proved himself an eminent confessor on account of his religion. He died in London.

$LXXXVI GOVERDT, Christian +164*

F Christian Goverdt was born at Bruges and was professed at St Gregory's on October 28th 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. He was elected Secretary of the President at the Chapter of 1633 but he was superseded in his Office. He was living in 1643.

$LXXXVII BERINGTON, Bernard +1639-11-02

F Bernard Berington de St Petro was professed at the Monastery of Onia in Spain. In 1618 he obtained Faculties from F Leander the Vicar General for the English Mission, but he was probably retained as he was elected Superior of the Convent of St Edmund's the year following. [Biographical Records Vol II 50] In 1620 President Leander appointed him his Vicar in France and was continued in this Office as long as he lived. He was of a weak constitution but a grave and most reverend person and was elected the first Cathedral Prior of Worcester at the Chapter of 1629. For many years he resided at St Edmund's [F Berington was elected the Prior of St Edmund's at the Chapter in 1633 but declined the Office.] where he paid the debt of nature on November 2d 1639 [Weldon I 269]

$LXXXVIII HARPER, John +1639-11-28

F John Harper was professed at the Monastery of St Amilian in Spain. He assisted in beginning the Convent at St Malo and was Master of Novices in 1612. [F John intended to have assisted at the first Chapter in 1621 as Procurator Angliae but on reaching the seaport he fell from his horse was so much hurt from the fall that he could not proceed no farther.] At the Chapter of 1625 the Office of President devolved on him as President 2d Elect on the refusal of F Justus Edner the 1st Elect to accept Office; but he did not leave England to be installed, so that he forfeited his title to this high Office. This eminent Father possessed excellent parts and perfections and was of a most sweet temper and of most engaging manners. Prisons and banishments did not prevent him from consummating his course on the Mission in London on the 21st of November 1639 [Weldon I 85-269]

$LXXXIX TANKE, Stanislaus +1639-12-24

F Stanislaus Tanke a native of Wales was professed at St Gregory's on January 20th 1625 during the Priorship of F Leander and died in England on December 24th 1639 [Prof St G 111 tells us that F Stanislaus died in England. The Necrologies call him Br Thomas instead of F Stanislaus. The death of F Thomas Tanke will be entered under the year 1668. F Woodhope in his Obiits styles him Br John Tanke]

$LXL LEE OR JOHNSON, Augustine +1640-03-31

F Augustine Lee or Johnson having made an oblation of himself to F Augustine Bradshaw then Prior of St Gregory's, and having finished his Noviceship in 1608 was dismissed on account of his bodily weakness. He was born in Surrey and was a Secular Priest. After the lapse of years on his petition to the General Chapter of 1621 he was allowed to pass his Noviceship on the Mission in England and was professed there for St Gregory's on the 4 of July 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. He was of a most unblemished life and conversation a zealous preacher and promoter of the Catholic faith. He died in Sussex on March 31st 1640 [Prof Book of St G 102 Weldon I 269]

$XCI LATHAM, Vincent +1640-03-03

F Vincent Latham of Lancashire was professed at St Gregory's on the 8th of December 1622 during the Priorship of F Leander and died religiously on the Mission in Yorkshire on the 3d of March 1640 [Weldon I 269]

$XCII PRESTON, Thomas +1640-04-03

F Thomas Preston studied his divinity under Vasquez and was a Secular priest in the College at Rome, when he withdrew to avoid the contentions between the Jesuits and Seculars, and joined the Benedictines at Monte Cassino. According to the practice in that renowned Monastery his Novice Master would not allow him for the three years he was under his charge, to say Mass except on a few of the principal Feasts of the year. For, said he, you have not come hither to exercise your Priestly function that hath honour and dignity in it, but to become recollected, to know and humble yourself and cleanse your soul. [Weldon's Notes 24] He was professed about the year 1590 and during twelve years after this, he devoted himself to the study of divinity and became a great master in Canon Law. When Clement VIII granted Faculties to the Benedictines of the Cassin and Spanish Congregations for the English Mission towards the close of the year 1602, F Thomas, who was then of middle age and mature in judgment, was appointed Superior over the Cassin Fathers and reached England in company with F Anselm Beech in the spring of the following year. He soon became acquainted with F Sigebert Buckley and began to treat with him about aggregating others to his Abbey of Westminster, and thus perpetuate the old Congregation of English Benedictines. The question was brought before the General Chapter of the Cassin Fathers in Italy and he was empowered to bring about this advantageous measure in the best manner he was able. After many delays, he succeeded in accomplishing it by professing Robert Sadler and Edward Maihew, two Secular Clergymen who had passed their Noviceship in England on the 21st of November 1607 as members of the Cassin Congregation in the presence of the venerable Buckley, who was then in prison in the Gate House and then handed them over to the venerable old man to be aggregated by him to his Abbey of St Peter's at Westminster. On the 15th of December 1609 the old patriarch being disabled on account of age and infirmities to take charge of the members of the revived Congregation, he appointed F Thomas his Vicar and Superior over them; [Reyner's Appendix No IV] and he continued to govern both Congregations until he came into troubles and difficulties about the Oath of Allegiance.

Soon after King James published his Oath of Allegiance, a diversity of opinion arose as to the lawfulness of taking it. Early in June 1606 Dr Blackwall the Archpriest was met at his residence in London by Holt the Superior of the Jesuits and F Thomas the Superior of the Benedictines of the Cassin Congregation and by three of his assistant clergy Bishop, Mush and Broughton. It was found that the parties were equally divided in opinion. The Archpriest and two of his assistant Clergy defended the doctrines of the Oath; whilst F Holt, Preston and Mush condemned them. They separated without producing any alteration in each others opinions, and the controversy was ultimately laid before Paul V, who on the 22d of September 1606 issued a Breve in which he declared it was unlawful to take the Oath because it contained many things contrary to faith and salvation.

F Thomas afterwards changed his opinion and under the name of Roger Widdrington became the able champion of the Oath, maintaining that it could be lawfully taken in the sense of the lawgiver who imposed it. Whilst he admits Bellarmine's opinion to be the general one and appears even to concede that it is the more probable one, he only professes to contend, that it is not an article of faith, and that the contrary opinion has so much probability in it that it may be followed with a safe conscience.

He was now a prisoner in the Clink and devoted his time to study and writing on this controversy. For many years he stood out notwithstanding the threats of the Pope and the earnest persuasion of his friends, and encouraged several both clergy and Regulars, who had an extraordinary opinion of his parts and learning, to join with him in their advocacy of the Oath. But at last he submitted before his person was attacked by any express censure. [Panzani informs us page 121 that F Preston engaged in the controversy with Bishop Smith and by several odious questions proposed amongst the Laity he made them very uneasy under the jurisdiction claimed by the Bishop.] This learned and eminent Benedictine closed his life in the Clink, a prison in London, at an advanced age on the 3d of April 1640 [See the life of Roger Widdrington Dodd II 420. F Baker on the Mission 420]

His works are

1. Disputatio Theologica de Juramento Fidelitatis Sanctissimo Patri Paulo Papae V dedicata. Albionopoli 4to 1613

2. Apologia Cardinalis Bellarmini pro jure principum, adversus suas ipsius Rationes pro Authoritate Papali, Principes Seculares, in Ordine ad Bonum spirituale, deponendi, 4to 1611

3. Ipsa Praefatio et Apologetica Responsio. Cosmopoli 8vo 1612

4. A confutation of the reply of Thomas Fitzherbert and of the objections of Schulkenius (ie Bellarmin) against Widdrington, Apology for the Right of Princes, 4to 1616

5. His last Rejoinder to Fitzherbert's Reply, concerning the Oath of Allegiance, and the Pope's Power to depose Princes 1619

6. Discussio Discussionis Decreti magni Concili Lateranensis, contra Leonardum Lessium, sub Nomine G Singletoni Personatum. Augustae 8vo 1618

7. Purgatio. At the demand of the Cardinal de Propaganda Fide 1614

8. A New Year's Gift: or an Explanation of the Oath of Allegiance, published under the Initials EJ 8vo 1619

9. An Adjoiner to the late Catholic New Year's Gift 8vo 1620

10. Appendix ad Supplicationem Against Suarez Bellarmin &c

11. Appendix ad Disputationem Theologicam de Juramento Fidelitatis. In Answer to Suarez's Objections 1616

12. Ad Paulum V Humillima Supplicatio 8vo 1616

13. Prestoni et Greenaei Appellatio ad Papam, Augustae 4to 1622

$XCIII PRESTON, Bennet +1640-11-13

Br Bennet Preston of Lancashire was professed at St Gregory's on the 8 of September 1639 during the Priorship of F Joseph Frere and died soon after his profession in the bloom of youth on November 13th 1640

$XCIV HESKETH, Jerom +1640-12-09

Br Jerom Hesketh of Lancashire was professed a Choir Monk on the 21st of September 1639 during the Priorship of F Joseph Frere at St Gregory's and was cut off prematurely on the 9th of December 1640

$XCV LATHAM, Swithbert +1640-12-15

F Swithbert Latham of Lancashire was professed at St Laurence's on the 14th of September 1614 during the Priorship of F Paulinus de Onia. [Prof St G 39] He was a man of singular virtue and gave great edification in his Monastery and on the Mission and died at Mosborrow in Lancashire on the 15 of December 1640 [Weldon I 270 says he had executed the Office of Provincial in the North. This is an error as he never was Provincial.]

$XCVI LONE, John +1641-02-22

F John Lone was born in Kent and was professed at St Gregory's on the 25 of November 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow and died in his Convent on the 22d of February 1641 [Profession Book of St Gregory's 88]

$XCVII GRAY, Gervase +1641-04-06

Fr Gervase Gray was professed in Italy of the Cassin Congregation and died a very painful Missioner at Westby in Lancashire on April 6th 1641 [Weldon I 270]

$XCVIII MABBS, Laurence +1641-07-20

F Laurence Mabbs was born in Leicestershire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 15th of August 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. This noble confessor died in chains in the prison of Newgate on the 20th of July 1641 [Weldon I 269]

$XCIX BAKER, Augustine or David +1641-08-09

F Augustine or David Baker was the son of William Baker Gent by his Wife, the sister of Dr David Lewes, Judge of the Admiralty, and was born at Abergavenny in Monmouthshire on the 9th of December 1575. When he was eleven years old he was sent to Christ Church Hospital in London and in about four years after that, he became a Commoner of Broadgates Hall at Oxford; at which time he was observed to be naturally of a good disposition, but falling into ill company he acquired many vicious habits and committed many youthful disorders and gradually fell to an utter neglect of all duties of piety and religion: yet there remained in him a natural modesty whereby he was restrained from a scandalous impudence in sin. His Father who was Steward to Lord Abergavenny had a plentiful fortune: his eldest son Richard was a Counsellor at Law and he had intended his son David for the Church, but difficulties arising at the time when he should have entered upon a rich Benefice, his Father altered his resolution and sent for him home after he had been in the University two years to study the Law under his elder Brother. He continued four years with his Father and was then sent to the Middle Temple when he was twenty one years of age, where he applied himself with great attention and diligence to the study of the Law; so that many eminent persons judged him in a probable way by his more than ordinary capacity and skill of arriving ultimately at high preferment in his gainful profession. It was at this time that he began to entertain doubts concerning Divine Providence and the existence of a Supreme Being, to which his ill morals had in a great measure contributed, and which were not entirely removed until that Providence he doubted of came to his assistance in a very extraordinary manner.

After the death of his brother Richard, his Father was desirous of his company in the country, that he might be an assistant to him in his business which was to keep courts for him under Lord Abergavenny; and to give him full employment, he procured him to be made the Recorder of Abergavenny. Now it happened that returning home from a commission and his servant having ridden considerably before him, he, having his head full of business, or other thoughts, and not marking the way by a ford, by which he might pass the river, suffered his horse to conduct him by a narrow beaten path which at last brought him to the middle of a wooden foot bridge, which was large enough to pass over as you entered but growing still narrower as you proceeded, and of an extraordinary height above the water he perceived not his danger till the horse, by stopping, suddenly and trembling, gave its rider notice of the danger which he soon perceived to be no less than sudden death. To go forward or backward was impossible, and to leap into the river, which being narrower there was extremely deep and violent in its course, besides the greatness of the height seemed to him who could not swim all one as to leap into his grave. In this extreme danger, out of which neither human prudence; nor indeed any natural causes could rescue him, necessity forced him to raise his thoughts to some power and help above nature. Whereupon he made this resolution within himself, `If I escape this danger I will believe there is a God who hath more care of my life and safety than I have heed of his love and worship.' Thus he thought, and in a moment without his perceiving how it was done, he found his horse's head was turned the other way and himself and horse out of all danger. He never had any doubt but that his deliverance was supernatural, and it had such an influence upon him, that he not only altered his way of thinking regarding Divine Providence, but took a resolution to serve God who had so mercifully contrived his escape in the best manner he was able.

He had formerly been accustomed to read Law Books and others which could make no impression upon him in regard of religion; but now he frequently entertained himself with books of morality, and sometimes considered what was said on both sides the question in regards of the differences between the Catholic Church and others separated from her. He had also the curiosity to hear and enter into conferences upon the subject, till at length by the conversation he had with a learned Missioner in those parts, he was reconciled and became a member of the Catholic Church and at the same time he became quite another man as to his morals as appeared from his discourse and behaviour. From the time of his reconciliation he had signified to his Confessor his desire of retiring wholly from the world, and requested to be put in a way how to effect it. The Priest told him there were several Regulars in London, who were capable of assisting him as they were persons who by their profession had entirely renounced the world. Upon this he took a journey to London, where he met with some Benedictine Fathers of the Cassin Congregation, by whom he was encouraged in his good design, and as one of them was on the point of returning into Italy upon the affairs of his order, he readily accepted of the offer of accompanying him. On their arrival at Dover he wrote a letter to his Father to inform him of his departure out of England, without giving him any further notice of his intention than that he went to travel. Having crossed the sea, they made the rest of their journey to Padua, where he was received and admitted to the holy Habit of religion by the Abbot of St Justina on the 27 of May 1605, being then about thirty years of age and took the name of Augustine in religion.

It was during his Noviceship that he discovered the great affection he had for mental prayer in which he improved himself daily and carried it on to a great height during his whole life. Before the time of his Noviceship was expired, he was visited with a tedious fit of sickness, which, as the Physicians gave their opinion, was occasioned by the difference of the climate and for want of exercise, and that nothing could reestablish him in his health but the air of his own native country. Upon this he was permitted to return to England without giving up his religion Habit until his health was recruited. [Weldon's Notes 31 says `he became a Monk of St Justina at Padua in 1605 but wanting health the Fathers dismissed him with a very liberal viaticum and testimony of his religious behaviour and offered him a permission to be professed in any of their Monasteries or a recommendation to any other Congregation.'] He performed his journey with unusual expedition, a thing he often wondered at, not being able to give any reasonable account of it: he appeared as if impelled on by certain blind impulse which waged him on so forcibly that he never ceased posting till he came to London, where on his arrival he heard the sad news that his Father was dying. Wherefore hastening down into the country he became the happy instrument of bringing over his Father to the Church before he died and this he ever after looked upon as the providential effect of his expedition upon the road.

Having buried his Father and settled a handsome provision upon his Mother and settled his own estate as well as for the present he could, he returned to London and put himself under the charge of the Fathers of the Cassin Congregation. And fearing lest he might be interrupted with solicitations about his estate which was in land he sold it; and having done so he appears to have made his Profession in London to F Preston the Superior of the Cassin Fathers without returning to Italy and gave to him a good account of his temporals.

[F Augustine Baker in his work on the Mission 410 thus writes of himself, `In the which Monastery of St Justina did the penner hereof take the Habit in May 1605, and there performed his Noviceship, and being professed of the same Congregation of Italy, he by the council and leave of Superiors made a transition into the English Congregation, shortly after the first erection of it towards the increase of the number of it.' From this passage I should have supposed that Br Augustine Baker was professed before he returned to England on account of his illness; but F Cressy and his Biographers agree that he was not, so I dare not contradict them andhave adopted their statement. A difficulty however arises which I cannot fully clear up. Did Br Augustine return again to Italy and make his Profession there after he had buried his Father in 1606? Dodd in his life of Fr Augustine III 116 says, `he was impatient to return into Italy and finish his Noviceship which he did and became a member of the Italian Congregation and was permitted by them to return into England as a Missioner.' But F Cressy apud Weldon I 285 writes, `That having buried his Father &c he returned to London where he ordered his correspondence and reference to the Monks of the Italian Congregation intending himself to retire into solitude to the end he might give himself the more freely to prayer.' Then telling us he sold his estate, he proceeds, `Having done this he made his profession of a religious state unto the aforesaid Fathers of the Italian Congregation to whom he gave a good account of his temporal livelihood.' It appears to me from this passage he was professed in London a member of the Cassin Congregation by the Fathers who were there. But he did not return to Italy and get ordained Priest is certain from what Cressy says 289 having already told us his first attempt at mental prayer or conversation was in his Noviceship at Padua in 1605. His second was some three years after in England before he was Priest. He proceeds, `Moreover he fancied to himself that by the receiving of Holy Orders he might obtain such grace as thereby to be enabled to recover the degree from which he was fallen. Whereupon he went beyond sea into France and at Rheims took Priesthood.' Of course I prefer the authority of Cressy to Dodd, who does not appear to have had access to the Records of the Benedictines and who appears to have known little about them except what he picked up in his miscellaneous reading.]

At this time F Preston, who had in 1604 obtained the sanction of his Superiors in Italy to bring about the aggregation of some of his subjects to the Abbey of Westminster, was busily engaged in this important business and he now availed himself of the services of Br Augustine in maturing his plans, who some time after the first aggregation of F Robert Sadler and F Edward Maihew by the venerable Buckley, made a transition with the leave of his Superiors into the English Congregation. Br Augustine had all along been desirous of retirement, and as he had the means of supporting himself, his Superior no longer having a call for his service permitted him to follow the bent of his inclinations.

[Cressy 285 attributes to Br Augustine Baker the merit of suggesting to F Preston his Superior the aggregation of Monks to the Abbey of Westminster by the venerable Buckley. But this is evidently incorrect 1. He represents page 285 the Cassin Fathers becoming acquainted with F Sigebert Buckley in 1606 about the time Baker returned to England from the Monastery of St Justina; whereas it is quite certain from the testimony of F Anselm Beech (See Note 2 {ad calc. Record VII, SIgenert Buckley}, that they became acquainted with him three years before; and 2. It is certain from Reyner's Appendix No II that the subject of aggregation was brought before the General Chapter in Italy in 1604 a year before Baker proceeded to London after his conversion.]

He first occupied a private lodging with a young gentleman, the son of one of the most eminent Noblemen in the Kingdom, who having shortly before reconciled to the Catholic faith, was very anxious to lead a retired life with him. But this society did not continue long; for partly through a suspicion conceived by the Gentleman's Father that Br Augustine was a Priest, and was the cause of his son's continuing a Catholic, and so consequently of depriving him of a fair state intended for him, but principally through the dissatisfaction that Br Augustine had in the conversation and ways of the young Gentleman, whose fantastical way of devotion made him prognosticate would end unfortunately as it did in process of time for he ultimately became weary of his devotions and of his faith also.

Br Augustine after this retired to the house of Sir Nicholas Fortescue and seriously renewed his exercise of mental prayer. This extraordinary character in the course of his life made three several attempts upon the practice of internal prayer, which in the language of asceticism, he terms conversions. His first attempt was during his Noviceship at Padua and continued for three years. His second began about 1608 when he was residing with Sir Nicholas and lasted for twelve years. And his third began about 1620 when he was about forty five years of age. He usually devoted six or seven hours a day to mental recollection. At the beginning of his second conversion, he fell from his primitive state of contemplation and experienced great dryness and aridity in prayer, and thinking he might obtain grace by receiving Holy Orders and so be enabled to recover the degree from which he was fallen, he retired into France and at Rheims was promoted to the priesthood and then returned to England, but continued until his third conversion as tepid and indevout as he had been before his ordinations.

About 1613 when F Leander the Vicar General admitted the members of the old English Congregation to an equal participation with the Spanish in the property of the Convent of St Laurence's at Dieuleward, he was aggregated to that Convent. On the promulgation of the Union, F Augustine was the first of all the Benedictines on the Mission who accepted of it; and being asked by a friend what had made him so forward, all the answer he gave was a Domino egressus est sermo &c the matter hath proceeded from our Lord neither could I do anything beyond or against his will.

F Augustine about the beginning of his third conversion in 1620 was settled in the west country by F Robert Sadler the Provincial of Canterbury, in the house of one Philip Fursden a resident gentleman in that part where he would have all conveniences for his design of recollection. The year following his Superior called him up to London, where he lived privately employing his time in writing several Treatises on mystic ways and subjects. But it was not long before his Superiors employed him in a more important way. The new Congregation of his Order had been attacked by F John Barnes and F Francis Walgrave, who denied the existence of an English Benedictine Congregation before the Reformation, and who maintained that the English Benedictines had been subject to the authority and jurisdiction of the Cluny Congregation, so that he was commissioned to visit various Libraries and search the records of the Tower and other Public Depositaries of ancient manuscripts, to disprove the statements of his alienated brethren and to establish the credit and former independence of the Benedictines. During two years or more he devoted himself to these literary pursuits, and with incredible pains and at the cost of almost two hundred pounds which he willing sustained himself, he furnished sufficient matter for the two first Tracts of the work, which was afterwards published under the title of Reyner's Apostolatus.

Soon after his labours were completed, President Barlow, considering his abstracted life disqualified him for the Mission, and intending to employ him in compiling an Ecclesiastical History, for which he knew he was plentifully provided with materials collected out of ancient Records, kindly invited him over to Doway in 1624. At first he did not accept of the offer, but afterwards fearing trouble from a proclamation set forth for the banishment of Priests and being urged on by an interior impulse to cross the seas, he proceeded to the President at Doway; but not finding the place suitable to his mind, he went to the new Convent which was beginning at Cambray and was made the Spiritual Director to the Benedictines Nuns, although he was never appointed their regular Vicar. [Cressy tells us, Weldon I 299 `that after the Chapter of 1625 he was Confessarius at Cambray till the new appointed Confessarius came; and he supplied the same three or four several times besides for near three years.' This would be after the death of F Edward Maihew within the first six years of his being there.] He now devoted himself to prayer and contemplation, giving up his leisure hours to the instruction of the nuns, to the composition of his ascetic works, and to the compilation of an Ecclesiastical History which filled six volumes in folio. At the Chapter of 1629 F Francis Hull, the new appointed Vicar to the Nuns put in his claim to be a great master of spirituality. His system did not coincide with F Augustine's and a controversy arose between them, which continued during the quadriennium. Both Fathers attended the following Chapter; and F Francis Hull brought the subject of F Augustine's writings and method of prayer under discussion as containing some hidden danger in them. They were both ordered to frame a brief account of the manner which each of them respectively pursued in conducting religious souls tending to contemplation. As soon as these were examined the writing of F Augustine's unanimously approved and the following form was subscribed by both parties.

Both of them do accord that the divine calls inspirations, inactions, influences of God's grace, joined with the humble frequent use of the sacraments of Christ, are the most noble and sublime means to spirituality; without which to endeavour after contemplation and perfection, were to fly without wings. And that those calls, or holy lights and inspirations are always to be regarded, but chiefly in prayer and conversation with God. And that whosoever neglecteth his interior not hearkening to the interior voice or allocution of the Holy Ghost, nor labouring to direct his external observances, to taste God more sweetly, to see him more clearly, to love him more ardently, and enjoy him more intimately in his soul and spirit, can never attain to purity of intention, and the spirit of contemplation, though he be never so exact in external observances, and in austere corporal mortifications &c [Weldon I 302]

F Augustine sat in this chapter as Definitor and having one day in consequence of long consultations lost the opportunity of saying Mass, he was much afflicted, affirming it was the first time he had done so for five or six years; and to prevent a similar occurrence, he obtained leave to be absent from the morning consultations whenever his presence was not absolutely necessary. As his abstracted life disqualified him from discharging the duties of a Chapterman he ceased from this time to be a Capitular Member of the Body.

After he had spent nine years with the Nuns to the great comfort of Mother Catharine Gascoigne the Abbess, who was a faithful follower of his system of prayer, he was removed by President Bagshaw to the Convent of St Gregory's at Doway, where he remained five years devoting his time to prayer and to his writings. His constitution was nearly worn out with corporal austerities and his feeble frame was nearly exhausted.

[Cressy writing of his mode of life in about 1620 tells us Weldon I 286 The state of his corporal constitution was then such that though his stomach could digest no more than would a child of five years old (so that if he had taken more, as he once ventured to do, he was, and would have been in danger of dying of a surfeit) notwithstanding at the same time his appetite was very eager and strong, answerable to a person of full age as he then was. In such equality of temper coming daily to a very plentiful and well furnished table with a most greedy and almost insatiable appetite, the difficulty he suffered in abstaining can scarce be imagined. The which difficulty increased through the grace of God, he was enabled to resist and overcome the temptation; so that daily he rose from the table with a raging appetite and desire to eat more, which he would not, and indeed durst not do for as I said before one or two small excesses committed, had almost endangered his life. Yea by the practice of mortification with prayer, he was come to such a courage and victory over sensual appetite that he was enabled besides the forementioned mortification, to produce moreover one that was voluntary; which was that he often used to deny himself those meats which were most grateful to his appetite: and betwixt each of the morsels, his custom was to make a good pause, when his stomach raged most with hunger so that he daily rose from meat more satisfied in soul then in stomach.]

In his work on the Mission which he finished in 1636 he says, `I can promise no man's not going and passing to England, save my own, whose body is so extremely decayed, that if it intended such a thing it would not suffice for it but would fail by death ere it could reach half the way.' But notwithstanding this F Clement Reyner the President ordered him in 1638 to repair to the Mission in England. At first he represented his desire to die amongst his Brethren, and his friends attested his extreme weakness and utter inability with present danger to his life to abide the travail of such a journey especially by sea. But when Superiors still persisted in their commands, he without reply obeyed verily believing he should never be able to reach to the end of his journey. Yea when he was advised by some special friends to seek a just and necessary remedy by Appellation to higher Superiors, he made such a worthy account of obeying according to the Rule even in things impossible, that he protested if the Pope were then at Doway and would certainly for his asking free him from that obedience, he would not demand of him. He however stood the journey better than could be expected, and on his arrival in London he was placed in the family of Mr Watson who had been Surgeon to his late Majesty, whose Lady took every care of him. Being now utterly disabled from writing his only exercise was prayer, which was prolonged to a greater prolixity than ever it had been before, so that he would devote above eleven hours in the day to contemplation.

[Fr Augustine Baker was removed by President Bagshaw from the Convent of the Nuns at Cambray and then from the Convent of St Gregory's by President Reyner at a time when he was perfectly unfit to undertake Missionary duty. The whole tenor of the life of Fr Clement Reyner shows he was a moderate Superior and a man of correct judgment. To what cause then are we to attribute these removals? After an attentive perusal of what has come under my notice regarding Fr Augustine, I have come to the conclusion that he was removed in both cases in consequence of the discontent and confusion which were produced by him through those under his directions carrying out imperfectly his system. See the case of the Nuns as stated in the History of the Benedictines page 373. The earnestness with which Fr John Meutisse sought to be exempt from the Priorship of St Gregory's shows that his Convent was not in a satisfactory condition. See the History Note 2 page 211 and Note 6 page 251. F Cressy apud Weldon I 310 informs us that F Baker did not say Mass regularly every day. And when a certain Priest a friend of his did expostulate with him for it his only answer was, First to ask him a question whether he himself would not omit the saying of Mass (when he was not obliged) if by no other means he could prevent the loss of a considerable sum of money or even for the gaining of such a sum as £20 &c. And the other acknowledged that he should and might in such a case omit by the opinion of Doctors. He replied as for me I prefer a good profound recollection far above many hundred of pounds.]

He took his last journey out of Bedfordshire to London in the company of his charitable hostess in 1641 in those troublesome times, which followed the meeting of the long parliament, when the pursuivants were busy in their search after Priests. On one occasion they were in search of him, being betrayed as was supposed by perfidious discovery of a certain person, and he was forced several times to change his lodgings, but was constantly pursued. When he had taken refuge in one of these hiding places, the officers beset the House and were ready to break open the doors, when a person in the street called out to them, bidding them be aware how they entered a house suspected with the plague in which only one woman dwelt who was then abroad; so that upon this warning, the officers fled and he was rescued from the dangers which beset him. These sudden removals and the excitement attending them brought on a distemper which in four days terminated in a pestilential fever so violent that it terminated the life of this holy man in a very short time and he died in his 66th year on the 9th of August 1641.

His Works are in manuscript

1. An Anchor or stay for the spirit, preserving it in Life, in all cases of Spiritual Storms or Tempests of Temptations, Fears &c. In two parts 8vo

2. A spiritual Treatise, divided into three parts: called A.B.C. 8vo. Approved by Father Rudesind Barlow and Father Leander in a Sancto Martino

3. Discretion: or a Treatise of Discretion, to be used and held in the exercises of a spiritual life. 8vo. Approved by the said persons December 24th 1629

4. A Treatise of Confession. 8vo. Approved by Father Rudesind Barlow September 17 1629

5. A Treatise of Doubts and Calls: in three parts. 8vo. Approved by Father Leander in Sancto Martino May 12 1630 and April 4 1634

6. The Mirror of Patience and Resignation. 8vo

7. A Discourse concerning the Love of our Enemies

8. A Discourse teaching all Virtues in General

9. A spiritual Alphabet for the use of beginners: with a memorial for the Instructor. 8vo. To which is added,

10. The Order of Teaching. The two last approved by F Leander & Sancto Martino August 27 1629; and April 4 1634

11. Spiritual Emblems; or short sayings, with their Expositions. 8vo

12. Vox clamantis in deserto Animae. 8vo 'Tis an Exposition in English of the Scala Perfectionis of Walter Hilton, the Carthusian, for the use of the English Nuns at Cambray.

13. Dicta seu Sententiae, sanctorum Patrum de Praxi vite perfectae. 8vo

14. Directions for contemplation in four parts. 4to Approved 1629

15. A Treatise de conversione Morum 4to

16. Flagellum Euchomachorum; against the Adversaries of Mental Prayer

17. Instructions for the profitable use of Mental Prayer</p>

18. Of the fall and Restitution of Man. 8vo

19. A Book of five Treatises. The first against such as are solicitous for the honour of the House or Order. 8vo. Approved Octob 31 1629

20. An Enquiry about the Author of Abridgment of the Ladder of Perfection. It was made by an Italian Lady of Milan; but published by Father Achilles Galliardi a Jesuit

21. Secretum, sive mysticum: or certain notes upon the book called the Cloud of Unknowing. Two parts. 8vo

22. A Treatise concerning the Apostolical Mission into England. Two parts. 4to 23. A Treatise concerning Refection. 8vo

24. Remains or Supplements to several Treatises written by himself

25. Rythmi Spirituales; sive canticorum Libri, Three tomes in Latin 12 mo

26. A Treatise, how to make a right use of Sickness

27. The Idiot's Devotion/p>

28. An account of his own life

29. An Apology for himself: or a solution of some objections made against his own Writings

30. Exposition of St Bennet's Rule in four parts.

All the above mentioned works and others amounting to fifty Treatises of his own composition, besides others compiled and translated by him amounting to as many more were preserved in 9 large tomes in folio MSS in the Monastery of the Benedictine Nuns at Cambray. Six MS tomes in folio of Ecclesiastical History and other Antiquities were collected by him out of the best Libraries and Archives having been assisted therein by the learned Camden, Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Henry Spelman, John Selden and Dr Francis Godwin Bishop of Hereford to all of whom he was familiarly known. He wrote also two Treatises of the Laws of England while he was of the Middle Temple, which after his death being left in the hands of his kinsman F Leander Pritchard were ultimately destroyed at the pillaging of the house and chapel of St John's in Clerkenwell when King James II left England in December 1688.

I shall conclude this life by giving F Augustine Baker's own opinion on his own spirituality a little before his death. `A certain religious priest, who was a person of note in the Mission, desired earnestly to know wherein consisted the difference between the spirituality, which Mr Baker taught, and the spirituality of others, who opposed or misliked him: and this he desired to have in writing. Mr Baker being at that time not able to pen any thing himself commended that affair to one, whom he thought able to give good satisfaction. And hereupon a little short writing was drawn up and some differences signed, and the paper concluded very dispatchingly: viz That the difference was not between spirituality and spirituality but between spirituality and no spirituality, for his adversaries did neither teach any spirituality nor required any in their subjects or disciples; only they did forbid and hinder any body to withdraw themselves from under their magisterium. And as they now disliked any body that did betake themselves to Mr Baker's instructions, so would they dislike any that should resort for spiritual information to any body else, as well as Mr Baker.' [See his life in Wood's Athenae III 7. Also Dodd III 115 and F Cressy's account apud Weldon I 279. See Mother Catherine Gascoigne's relation of her spiritual course approved of by F Leander and Dr Barlow Records Vol II 51 at the end of this Biography.

$C BARLOW, Ambrose or Edward +1641-09-10

F Ambrose or Edward Barlow was born at Manchester in 1586 of pious and Catholic parents of the ancient family of Barlow of Barlow which had suffered much on account of religion. When he was twelve years old, he was taken from school and placed under the direction of his uncle. But as he grew up and considered the emptiness and vanity of life, he took a resolution to go abroad in order to procure those helps of virtue and learning, which might qualify him for the Priesthood and enable him to be of service to his countrymen.

The place he made choice of for his studies was the English College at Doway, which had been recommended to him by many learned and virtuous Priests who had studied there. Here meeting with two young gentlemen of the same age and of similar inclinations, he chose them for his chamber fellows and with them frequented the humanities schools at Anchin College under the Fathers of the Society, as all the alumni of the English Seminary did during Dr Worthington's Presidency. When he had finished his humanities, he was sent in 1610 to Valladolid to study his Philosophy and Divinity; but before he had finished his course he followed his Brother Dr Barlow to Doway and thence he passed to the Convent of St Malo's and took the Habit in 1614. Here he resided about nine months and then obtained permission to return to St Gregory's at Doway to finish his studies. It appears he was again clothed by Dr Barlow on the 4th of January 1615 and was professed on the 5th of January the following year and was afterwards incorporated into the Monastery of Cella Nova in Gallicia where his brother had been professed. Being now more than thirty years of age and being well qualified by his learning and virtue for the Apostolic calling he was ordained Priest soon after his Profession, and sent to his native county of Lancashire on the Mission. Here he laboured for twenty four years with great success. Some months before his last apprehension, for he was several times a prisoner, hearing that some persons whom he loved as his own soul were in a resolution to do something very wicked, which was likely to prove the ruin of many souls, he was so strongly on a sudden affected with it that it occasioned a fit of the dead palsy, which deprived him of the use of one side and put him in danger of his life. What now added very much to his cross was the fear lest his poor children, whom he had begotten in Christ, would be left destitute of spiritual assistance; and whereas his convulsions and pains seemed to have brought him to death's door, he had this additional affliction that no priest could be found to administer the holy sacraments to him. In these extremities Almighty God was pleased to comfort him, and being in a manner out of himself, he broke forth into these words, `Lord thy will be done, a due conformity of our will to thine is to be preferred to the use of the sacraments and even to martyrdom itself. I reverence and earnestly desire thy sacraments and I have often wished to lay down my life for thee in the profession of my faith, but if it be pleasing to thy infinite wisdom by this illness to take me out of the prison of this body half dead already thy will be done.' Whilst he was in the dispositions, God was pleased to send him a Priest of the Society of Jesus to assist him. He however partially recovered and was able to resume the duties of his ministry. On Easter Sunday 1641 he was officiating, though still very weak, when he was apprehended in the following manner. A neighbouring minister, who had with him at Church a numerous Congregation, instead of entertaining them on that solemn day with a sermon and prayers as usual, proposed to them as a work more worthy their zeal to go along with him to apprehend Barlow, that noted popish priest, whom they would now be sure to find in the midst of his flock; whereas if they were to stay till Church time was over they would miss the opportunity. They relished the proposition, and being about four hundred in number armed with clubs and swords, they followed the parson marching in front in his surplice to the house where F Ambrose Barlow and his Congregation about a hundred in number were met together. This holy man had finished Mass and was making an exhortation on the subject of patience, when the Catholics perceiving the house was besieged, endeavoured to persuade him to hide himself; there being more than one hiding place in the house, but he would by no means consent to secure himself and leave his sheep to the mercy of these wolves. Wherefore exhorting them all to constancy, and putting them in mind that these light and momentary tribulations would work in them an eternal weight of glory, and telling them how ready he was for his part to suffer all things for Christ, he ordered them to open the doors. The mob immediately rushed in crying out, where is Barlow, where is Barlow. He is the man we want, and laying hands upon him, they secured him letting the rest go, upon giving bonds for their appearance. Being now in the hands of this mob and their minister, who it seems had acted in this whole affair without any warrant, he was carried by them the same day before a Justice of Peace, who sent him guarded by sixty armed men to Lancaster Castle. He was conveyed to gaol in a sort of triumph by this armed mob, who insulted over him and treated him with contempt; which was to him a subject of joy, though at this time he was as yet so weak that he could not sit on horseback without one behind him to support him. He was kept in prison from Easter till the summer assizes; and in the mean time instead of being weakened or cast down by his sufferings he wonderfully recovered in health. Upon his friends proposing to use their interest to have him removed to London, or sent into banishment as many others had been, he desired them to be easy and not concern themselves about him, for that to die for this cause viz for being a Catholic Priest was to him more desirable than life that he must die some time or other and could not die a better death. In prison he often entertained himself with the Book of Boethius de Consolatione which the gaoler taking notice of, took the book away. Upon this he said smiling, `If you take this little book away I will betake myself to that great book from which Boethius learnt his wholesome doctrine, and that book you can never take away from me.' This is what he continually practised by mental prayer.

After four months imprisonment, his trial came on, on the 7th of September before Sir Robert Heath, who is said to have had instructions from the Parliament to see the law executed upon any priest who should be convicted at Lancaster, for a terror to the Catholics, who were numerous in that county. The indictment being read: F Ambrose freely acknowledged himself a Priest and that he had exercised his Priestly functions for above twenty years in this kingdom. The Judge asked him why he had not obeyed the King's proclamation, commanding all Priests depart the realm before the 7 of last April. To this he answered, That the edict only specified Jesuits and seminary Priests; whereas he was a religious of the order of St Bennet and consequently not included. Moreover that several persons there present, especially those who had taken him to prison, very well knew that he was then so weak by a long and grievous illness that he was no way in a condition to obey the proclamation. The Judge, perceiving that the people were moved with compassion towards him and that each one said that his sickness was a legitimate excuse for him, turned the subject of discourse, and asked him what he thought of the justice of those laws by which those of his profession were put to death. `I esteem them unjust and barbarous,' replied the martyr. `If such be your opinion,' replied the Judge, `What do you think of our King's who have made them.' Perceiving the malice of this question, he only said that he prayed God to pardon the authors of such laws and those who carried them into execution. The Judge then told him That his sickness excused him in some measure and that he would be set him at liberty provided he promised not to seduce the people any more. It will be easy, said this servant of God to pledge my word to this since I have laboured all along to disabuse the minds of those who have fallen into error, and since I am in the resolution to continue till death to render this good office to these strayed souls. You speak very boldly to a man who is master of your life, replied the Judge, and who can either acquit or condemn you as he shall judge proper. It is true, replied the martyr, that you have power given to you over me through a wicked policy, but beware, although I appear before you in quality of a criminal, being as I am a minister of Jesus Christ and a priest of the new Law and I declare to you if you continue to condemn the innocent and remain in the darkness of heresy, that you will have no part in the happiness of the children of God. I shall have the advantage over you concluded the Judge in anger since my sentence will be executed first. Upon this he directed the Jury to bring him in guilty, and the next day pronounced sentence upon him in the usual form. On Friday the 10th of September he was brought out to suffer according to sentence and laid upon the hurdle, on which he was carried to the place of execution, carrying in his hand a cross of wood which he had made. When he was come to the place where he was to be sacrificed, he went three times round the gallows, carrying his cross before his breast and reciting the Miserere psalm. He suffered with great constancy and so passed from this transitory life to eternal rest in the 55th year of his age, the 25 of his religious Profession, and the 24 of his Priesthood and Mission. September 10th 1641 [See his life written by Bishop Challoner, also an account of his martyrdom in Weldon I 317 which as it is printed in the Année Benedictine I have not copied. See also the Mortuary Bill of F Ambrose Barlow Record LXXXI 307 At the last General Chapter in 1641 F Rudesind Barlow resigned his Cathedral Priorship of Coventry and his Brother F Ambrose was elected in his place on the 3d of Septr. But before this information could reach him he had passed into eternity.

$CI ROE, Alban or Bartholomew +1642-01-31

F Alban or Bartholomew Roe was born in Suffolk of a gentleman's family and was from his infancy brought up in the Protestant religion. After having gone through his lower studies in his own county, he was sent to the University of Cambridge and therefore some time applied himself with great success to the higher branches of learning, till going to visit some friends at St Albans as providence would have it, he was told of one David, an inhabitant of that town lately convicted and cast into prison as a popish recusant, and was desirous to go and talk with the prisoner, making no question but he would convince him of the errors and absurdities of the Romish tenets, for he had a ready and sharp wit, and was full of conceit of his own religion and entertained very erroneous notions of the Catholic doctrine. To the prison, therefore, he went and entered into discourse upon religion with the prisoner, who though a mechanic was not ill read in controversy: so that he was able to maintain his cause against all the oppositions of the young University man and even pushed him very hard upon some articles, so that he was able to answer them. He left him with confusion, beginning now to stagger and diffide in the truth of his own religion.

From this period Mr Roe was very uneasy in mind upon religion, nor did his uneasiness cease, till by reading and conferring with Catholic Priests he was thoroughly convinced of his errors and determined to embrace the ancient faith. He was then desirous to impart the truth to the souls of his neighbours, and to this end he resolved to go abroad that he might enter into holy Orders and so return home well qualified by virtue and learning to preach to others the true way of salvation. Being therefore reconciled to the Church when he was about thirty years of age he passed over into Flanders and entered himself first as a convictor in the English College at Doway; but after some time he removed to the Convent of St Laurence's at Dieuleward where he took the Habit, and having given general satisfaction during the year of his probation he was professed in 1612. As he was found fully qualified for the Priesthood, he was ordained and in 1615 was sent to assist in beginning a new Convent at Paris; but he does not appear to have remained long there before he was sent on the Mission.

On arriving in England he commenced his Missionary labours, preaching with great fervour and gaining many souls to the Church of Christ. After some time he fell into the hands of pursuivants and was committed to the new prison which was then in Maiden Lane where for five years he endured great hardships until he was released through the mediation of Count Gondomar the Spanish Ambassador, and with many other Priests sent into banishment. He now proceeded to the Convent of St Gregory's, and having passed fifteen days in spiritual recollection, he returned again to the Mission, where he passed the remainder of his days and those for the most part in prison. For after he had laboured for about two years more with his usual zeal, he fell a second time into the hands of the adversaries of his faith and was then committed a close prisoner in a filthy gaol at St Albans, the very place where he had received the first favourable impressions of the Catholic faith. His confinement here was very strict and his want of necessaries so very great, that he verily believed he must have perished of hunger if a special Providence had not interposed. But after two months, by means of some friends he was sent up to London and was better accommodated in the prison of the Fleet, where he was confined during seventeen years. In the latter part of the time, he appears to have had the liberty of going abroad upon his parole and attending to the calls of his Ministry as several other Priests had in King Charles's time. In the mean time he suffered much from illness and violent fits of the stone, for which he underwent operations more than once; all which he endured with invincible patience and courage.

Some time after the meeting of the long Parliament, he was apprehended and committed to Newgate, and within a few days brought up to trial at the Old Bailey, the chief witness against him was a fallen Catholic whom he had formerly assisted. He pleaded not guilty, but at first objected to be tried by twelve ignorant jurymen as being unwilling that they should be concerned in the shedding of innocent blood. On the following day he consented to be tried by his country. And the jury returned a verdict of guilty of high treason on account of his Priestly character. The Judge then pronounced sentence upon him according to the usual form which he heard with a cheerful countenance. He then acknowledged himself to be a Priest, but loudly condemned those laws, by which Priests were to be put to death and was then remanded to prison.

On the morning in which he was executed he found means to celebrate Mass in prison, which he did with singular devotion, and then made a short and pathetic exhortation to the Catholics who were present, giving them his last benediction and desiring them as often as they should see that hand of his fixed on the Gates of the City, or his head on London bridge, to remember those lessons which he had preached to them of the necessity of holding fast of the Catholic faith and of leading a christian and holy life.

When he was admonished that the Officers of Justice waited for him below, he readily obeyed the summons and walked down the steps with an edifying composure and a modest cheerfulness in his looks, saluting the Sheriff and all the people with great civility. Then coming up to the hurdle and taking Mr Reynolds, a secular clergyman, by the hand, who was to be executed with him, and feeling his pulse, asked him with his usual facetiousness how he felt himself now, `In very good heart', said Mr Reynolds, `blessed be God for it, and glad that I am to have for my companion in death a person of your undaunted courage.'

When they arrived at Tyburn, they made their last confessions to each other, and after mutual embraces and congratulations, getting up into the cart they kissed the ropes and put them on as their last stoles in which they were to offer their last sacrifice, and heartily recommended themselves to the prayers of all Catholics. When Mr Reynolds was making his last speech, F Alban was busy in preparing one of the three felons for death, whom he had reconciled in prison the day before and who was to be executed at the same time. Then Mr Roe proceeded to address the people; but was stopped by the Sheriff from proceeding in denouncing the law, by which a Priest was to be put to death as unjust and wicked; upon which he begged to speak a word or two to the Sheriff himself who told him he might. Pray then Sir, said F Alban, if I will conform to your religion and go to Church, will you secure me my life. That I will, said the Sheriff, upon my word my life for yours if you will but do that. `See then, said F Alban, turning to the people, what the crime is for which I am to die.' The two Martyrs having repeated the Miserere psalm twice over, the executioner came to cover their faces; upon which F Alban told him he had already disposed of his handkerchief, but said he, I dare look death in the face. After again recommending their souls to God, as the cart was drawn from under them, these two servants of God passed to a better world on the 31st of January 1642. They were allowed to hang until they were fully dead and were then cut down and quartered. [See his life by Bishop Challoner also an account of his Martyrdom in Weldon I 323 which as it is printed in the Année Benedictine I have not copied. See also the Mortuary Bill of F Alban Roe LXXXII 307]

$CII MONINGTON, Thomas +1642-06-12

F Thomas Monington was nobly born in the Parish of All Hallows in Herefordshire and was professed of the Spanish Congregation at the House hired of the Trinitarians at Doway on the 16th of November 1610, during the Priorship of F Augustine Bradshaw. He was a very learned, pious, devout man, a good preacher and though of a weak constitution yet strong in charity. Having laudably discharged the office of Novice Master at St Gregory's, he was elected the first Prior of St Edmund's after the Union; and then a Definitor of the Congregation at the Chapter of 1621. Having discharged the duties of this Office, he afterwards passed to the Mission where he died on the 12 of June 1642 at Whitefield in Gloucestershire and was buried at Dirhurst which had been originally a Benedictine Priory. [See Prof St G 4 Weldon I 328 Sanctissime mortuus est in Anglia]

$CIII MURLAC, Augustine +1643-01-04

F Augustine Murlac died in England on January 4th 1643.

$CIV HILL, Thomas +1644-08-07

F Thomas Hill a secular clergyman received the Habit by commission from F Leander the Vicar General in 1612, whilst he was in prison for his faith and condemned to death. Being afterwards discharged and professed he lived exemplary on the Mission. He first detected the error of the Illuminati, who expected the incarnation of the Holy Ghost from a certain young virgin. At the Chapter of 1633 he was elected the first Cathedral Prior of Gloucester. When he had grown old and infirm, he retired to his Convent of St Gregory's and attending the Chapter which was held there in 1641, he earnestly implored the Fathers to release him from his Cathedral Priorship; but though his humility was applauded, yet his resignation was not accepted. This venerable confessor died in his Convent on the 7 of August 1644 in his 84th year 53d of his Priesthood 33d of his Profession and 50th of his labours on the Mission. He was a Doctor of Divinity and wrote a very devout book entitled The Plain Pathway to Heaven [Weldon I 329 Acts 1641 Septr 4] also a little book entitled A Quartrum of Reasons.

$CV HUTTON, John or Thomas +1643-08-19

F John or Thomas Hutton was professed at the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella. He was elected the Provincial of York at the Chapter of 1629 and also the first Cathedral Prior of Ely. He paid the debt of nature on the 19th of August 1643 in a good old age in Yorkshire [Weldon I 329]

$CVI HARTBURN alias FOORDE, Placid or John +1644-09-29

F Placid or John Hartburn alias Foorde, a secular Priest, having been received in England by a solemn oblation, was some years afterwards professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 29 of September 1617. He was a virtuous learned and diligent labourer on the Mission for at least forty years. Though he was often imprisoned for his faith yet he died at his post in a good old age on the 29 of September 1644 [Prof St G 56 Weldon I 329 F Placid Hartburn sat as Procurator of York in the General Chapter of 1633]

[Addenda No VII: The name of F Placid Foorde has cost me a good deal of time in endeavouring to make out whether Foorde was his only surname or whether he had another name 1st The name of Foorde does not appear in the Necrologies 2ly No one appears to have been professed under that name in any of the Convents and 3ly this name does not appear in the list of those who received Faculties from F Leander: see Records Vol I 464 although we know that F Placid Foorde was a Priest at the time and that his name ought to have appeared if Foorde had been his only surname. For these reasons I infer he must have had another. In the Definitions of Chapter 1625 F Placid Foorde is appointed one of those who had to compile the Statutes and Ceremonies to be observed by the Nuns at Cambray and he is also selected as one of those who were to be allowed to take their Degrees in Theology Weldon I 130-131 In this list his name appears after F Clement Reyner and before F Wilfred Selby and F Francis Crathorne. In turning to the Profession Book of St Gregory's we find that F Placid Hartburn was professed before these two, from which I infer that F Placid Foorde and F Placid Hartburn are the same person. As F Hartburn had been a Secular Priest and seemed to have been banished for his religion he must have assumed the name of Foorde and we know that it was usual in such cases for a person to change his surname. The name of F Placid Foorde appears in the Profession Book of St Gregory's as being witness to the profession of Br Amatus Legatt in 1625 page 114. He was still a Conventual in 1628 See Records Vol I 157 but in the beginning of 1629 he passed to the Convent of St Edmund's at Paris and was admitted into the Council. See the Council Book of St Edmund's 36 and would soon after pass to the Mission. That F Placid Hartburn is the same person as Foorde is confirmed by what Dr Barlow writes of F Hartburn in the Profession Book of St Gregory's 56 as he styles him `Doctus' which correspond with the above character of F Placid Foorde.

$CVII SHELDON, William +1644-11-27

Br William Sheldon of Warwickshire was professed at St Edmund's on the 15 of April 1640 during the Priorship of F Gabriel Brett. He died in Deacon's orders in his Convent on the 27 of November 1644 [Coun B St Edmund's 106]

$CVIII TURBERVILLE, Anselm +1645-04-15

F Anselm Turberville was professed at the Monastery at Montserrat in Spain. After labouring on the Mission for many years he died in Glamorganshire on the 15 of April 1645 [Weldon I 342]

$CIX HETHCOT, William +1645-07-23

F William Hethcot died Missioner in England on the 23d of July 1645

$CIX HATHERSAL, George +nd

F George Hathersal was professed at St Gregory's [See Prof Book of St Greg 48 He is named as receiving Faculties in 1619 Records Vol I 467] The time of his death is uncertain

$CX GREENWOOD, Paulinus +1645-11-27

F Paulinus Greenwood, commonly called Captain Lucy, of Brentwood in Essex was the first professed at the new Convent of St Gregory's in Doway on January 10th 1612, soon after the removal of his Convent of St Gregory's from the house hired of the Trinitarians. Having acted as Subprior of his Convent and professor of Philosophy at Marchienne College for some time, he was sent on the Mission, where he was betrayed by fallen Catholics and suffered a long imprisonment for the faith. On being released he returned to his Monastery. He was elected the first Prior of the Convent of St Malo after the Union and continued to govern it till the Chapter of 1625 with paternal moderation. [At Chapter 1625 F Paulinus Greenwood was elected the Procurator at Rome. Weldon I 139] He was then elected a Definitor Judge; and at the Chapter of 1629 he was elected the first Cathedral Prior of Norwich. At the Chapter of 1641 he was promoted to the Provincialship of Canterbury and continued to preside over that Province till his death which occurred at Oxford on the 27th of November 1645. Omnibus paene claustri et Missionis oneribus memorabilis et coronis auctus [Prof St G 16 Weldon I 342]

$CXI HULL, Francis +1645-12-31

F Francis Hull of Devonshire was professed at St Laurence's some years before the Union. He was a man of excellent parts and of great knowledge in spiritual matters, having a great gift in discerning of spirits and happily directing and guiding them in the way of justice and piety. At the Chapter of 1629 he was appointed Vicar to the Nuns at Cambray where he came in collision with F Augustine Baker who was residing there. Their differences were ultimately brought before the Chapter of 1633, which coincided with the views of F Augustine Baker and F Francis subscribed to a formula which had been drawn up by his rival in spiritual matters. On the death of F Bernard Berington he became the Vicar of France in 1639 and was continued in that Office till Chapter 1645. During the time he filled the Office he would generally reside in the Convent of St Edmund's; but on being superseded, he removed to the Convent of St Malo where he closed his holy life on the 31st December 1645, and was the first Father who was buried in the new Church of St Bennet's, and being a Praedicator Generalis, his remains were deposited near the pulpit. [Weldon I 342]

He wrote the Lives of the English Saints 2vol [F Francis petitioned the Chapter Acts August 28 1641 for means to print the second part of the Lives of the English Saints. On the 22d of August 1645 the Chapter at his request directed the Vicar of France to appoint a person to examine this Work. On the petition of some of the Fathers of York Province, the Chapter of 1649 on August 28, directed that the money which was collected for printing these Lives should be forwarded to the Provincial of Canterbury. At the Chapter of 1653 August 28 Commendata cura A.R. primo electi in Praesidem impressio secundi voluminis vitarum sanctorum &c, ut et revisio primi voluminis. He was chosen a Definitor at the Chapter in 1633 and a Definitor Judge and President 2d elect at the Chapter in 1641. [Addenda No VIII: No VIII Page 94 Note At the Chapter in 1661 [Sept 3d] Propositum est ut 2a pars vitae SS Anglice scribatur et ad expectationem diuturniorem nostratum explendam in lucem tandem mittatur et RP Provincialis Cantuariensis modo si manuscripta et lamina ad hoc opus necessaria sibi in Angliam mittantur de hac editione facienda se curaturum promisit. Unde Patribus hac in re satisfactum est et manuscriptum quod in manibus nomalium ordinis nostri reservetur et caeterae necessaria quam primum transmittenda emendatum est.]

$CXII HIRD OR LATON, Paulinus +1645-nd

F Paulinus Hird or Laton was born in Yorkshire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 23d of March 1631. This exemplary Missioner died in the north of England in 1645. [Weldon I 342]

$CXIII WILFORD, Boniface or Peter +1646-03-12

F Boniface or Peter Wilford was born in London and was a Secular Priest before he was professed of the Spanish Congregation at Doway, when the Convent was located in a house hired of the Trinitarians on the 8th of September 1609, during the Priorship of F Augustine Bradshaw. [See F Leander's Order of Obedience for F Boniface to repair to the Nuns at Chelles in 1612 Records Vol II page 56 at the end of this Biography] On the Union being confirmed at Rome, he refused to join it and pertinaciously persisted in refusing to submit to the Laws and Superiors of the English Congregation, although he was made subject to them by a Decree of Urban VIII as long as he resided out of Spain, and was commanded under precept by the Spanish General to obey them. He is specially named among the five refractory Benedictines, who would not submit; and in a mandate of the Spanish General in 1633 he is again ordered under a formal precept to acknowledge in writing without any fraudulent intention the President as his Vicar General, and to admit the jurisdiction of other Superiors, and that he was bound to live, subject to the laws of the English Congregation: and in case he disobeyed, he was declared to be suspended from the Altar, and further ordered to repair within three months to Spain. [Record LXI 224] Upon this he appears to have proceeded to Rome, but we have no reason to suppose that he obtained a reversion of this precept. In 1641 he, with two other refractory Fathers, being disposed to submit their case and to abide by the decision of the Spanish General Chapter, were ordered to send a Procurator to Spain to act for them. The result of this matter was, that the Spanish General was directed to confirm all that had been done by his Predecessors, and to order them to hand over to the English Congregation certain property, which had come into their hands on the death of some of their brethren, who were professed of the Spanish Congregation. [Record LXIII 237 This mandate is dated the 5th of May 1641. The General Chapter of the English Congregation followed in August and the Acts on the 31st of that month refer to another Order of the Spanish General in which appeared the names of these three refractory Fathers, William Johnson, Placid Peto and Boniface Wilford who would not give up the property of their deceased brethren; so that up to that time F Boniface had not submitted. We know that the two others held out, but this is the last time F Boniface is noticed in the Records of the Body.] We have no grounds to suppose that he obeyed this decree. He had now attained a great age, and falling into the hands of the pursuivants in those troublesome times, he was condemned to lose his life and was daily expected to be brought out for execution, but owing to some delay which occurred, he died in the prison of Newgate on the 12th of March 1646 of the hard usage which he had undergo, and to which he was unequal at the extreme age of fourscore and ten. [See Biographical Records Vol II 68 Challoner's Missionary Priests 103]

$CXIV MUNDEFORD, John +1646-05-22

F John Mundeford of Norfolk was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 13th of July 1614 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He was afterwards sent to the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella in company with Br Richard Hodgson, where he resided for some time; but on his return he lived in the Convent of St Edmund's and then passed to the Mission where he consummated his course at Worcester on the 22d of May 1646. [Prof St G 36. Weldon I 344]

$CXV LATHAM, Joseph or George +1646-06-11

F Joseph or George Latham was born at Rainfaith in Lancashire, and was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 29 of September 1617 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He acted for a time as Cellerarius of his Convent and afterwards discharged the same Office at St Edmund's. He passed to the Mission in 1625 where he continued till his death, which took place at Hereford on the 11th of June 1646. [Prof St G 54 which says he died on the 11th of June. Coun B St Edmund's 25. Weldon I 344]

$CXVI POWEL, Philip +1646-06-30

F Philip Powel [In the Prof St G 76 he is called Philip Roger or Prosser], commonly known upon the Mission by the name of Morgan, was the son of Roger Powel and Catharine Morgan, both of very ancient families and virtuous though not rich. He was born in the Parish of Tralon in Brecknockshire on the 2d of February 1594 and was brought up in Grammar learning in the common school of Abergavenny. At the age of 16 he was sent to London to F Augustine Baker to study the Law in the Temple and resided with him about four years; at which time being sent by him into Flanders on some temporal affairs, he proceeded to Doway and became inflamed with a great desire of joining the Benedictines there. His wishes were seconded by F Augustine Baker, and he returned and took the Habit and after giving satisfaction during the year of his probation, he was professed on the 15th of August 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. Being ordained Priest soon after, he acted as Cellerarius for a time and then passed to the Mission in 1622.

On his return to England, he repaired to F Baker with whom he lived sixteen months. After this he was sent to reside in the family of Mr Risden in Devonshire; and as soon as his daughter was married to a gentleman in Somersetshire, he repaired thither and devoted more than twenty years to his Apostolic functions in that part.

When the Parliamentary forces overran the County of Somersetshire, the family in which he resided was forced to abscond and F Philip withdrew into Devonshire; but after three or four months as no Catholic could find any place of safety but in Goring's Army, he joined it with many of his flock; and there took exceeding great pains in his functions for the space of six months until that army was disbanded. He then took ship in a small vessel, which was bound from Cornwall to Wales, and as he was sailing his vessel was boarded by Captain Crowder, Vice Admiral of those seas, and was known to two of the men on board who accused him of being a Priest, saying that they had lately been acquainted with him in the Parishes of Yearcombe and Parcombe, where he had seduced the greater part of the parishioners and withdrawn them from the Church. Upon this the Admiral charged him with being a Priest, which F Philip did not disavow, but frankly declared that he was a Priest and a religious of the Order of St Bennet. He was now committed prisoner under deck, where the soldiers stripped him of all his clothes to his very shirt and clothed him in rags. In this condition he was kept a prisoner from the 22d of February to the 11 of May, when by orders of the Earl of Warwick, Admiral for the Parliament, he was sent up to London and delivered to the custody of St Catharine's gaol in Southwark. When examined before Judge Roules, he acknowledged he was a Priest and was by him remanded to the Kings Bench. On the 29th of May he was cast into the common gaol in order to be judged upon the confession which he had made; but owing to the wretchedness of his lodging, he took a most dangerous pleurisy. As soon as he began to get a little strength, he was carried to the King's Bench Bar in Westminster Hall on the 9 of June, and his indictment drawn up from his own confession being read, the clerk demanded of him whether he was guilty or not guilty. The holy man answered with a great deal of meekness and courage, `That I am a Priest, I did freely confess and now acknowledge again, but guilty of any crime or treason against the state, I am not.' The Judge then said Mr Morgan you are to answer directly to the demand are you guilty or not guilty. He replied, I have acknowledged myself a Priest and a Monk, but I am not guilty. The Judge demanded by whom he would be tried, by God and by his country. He answered, If I must needs be tried, I will permit myself to be tried by the country, so he was conducted back to prison.

On the twelfth of June he was again taken to the King's Bench Bar. His indictment was again read in the presence of the Jury; and the Judge asked him what can you say for yourself. He modestly replied, that the proceeding against him ought to be deferred, for first said he, I doubt whether you my Lord have any just power from his Majesty to try me or no, secondly his Majesty's flag flying in a civil war, all trials of life and death cease. He was permitted to say no more, but conveyed by two Officers of the Court to a bye seat whilst the Jury sat upon him; and then was called again to the Bar to hear their verdict, which brought him in guilty: he was then sent back to prison.

On the 16 of June, he was called again to the Bar: he desired the favour to speak, which being granted, he pleaded that Henry VIII made a statute of qualification of all statutes; and that the reason of Queen Elizabeth's statutes against Priests was her fears and jealousies of the Queen of Scots and the Spaniards; and that it was conceived that time, that all the Priests in England had a relation to them both; but that now the case was altered; that the Kings person was absent and no plot could be executed by him upon it; so that both the person and the cause being taken away, this latter statute might receive the benefit of mitigation which point was long argued by him and the Judge, in presence of many lawyers, for it was term time. He added, that according to the letter of Queen Elizabeth's statute, he was not guilty, not being taken in England, but on the sea. But all would not do. So judgment was pronounced by Judge Bacon; upon which the holy man, with a cheerful countenance and pleasant voice, lifting up his hands and eyes toward heaven, said, `Deo Gratias, thanks be to God', adding, `I have not here room, by reason of the throng, to give God thanks on my knees; but I most humbly thank him on the knee of my heart.' Then he made an offering of himself, in a loud voice to his Saviour Jesus Christ, praying that the innocent blood might not increase God's wrath upon this kingdom, but rather be a means to appease it. Then he prayed for the King, Queen and their posterity; for the Judge, Jury and all who were any way guilty of his death. He was then sent back to prison where he was lodged in a low earthen ward with eleven other prisoners and bore with patience all the miseries of the place. His comportment attracted the notice of those around him and his fellow prisoners drew up a certificate of his innocent and virtuous behaviour signed by twenty nine gentleman all Protestants, excepting six, whom he had reconciled to the Church during his imprisonment.

The 30th of June the commemoration of the martyrdom of St Paul was the day fixed for his execution. He passed the preceding night mostly with his Confessor, except two hours, in which he reposed; and having finished his devotions in the morning and celebrated the divine mysteries with tears trickling down his cheeks, he proceeded with great cheerfulness to the hurdle on which he was drawn to Tyburn. When he had come to the place of execution, he knelt down upon his bare knees under the gallows and there for some time prayed in silence; then rising he stepped into the cart and making the sign of the cross upon himself, he began to speak upon the text We are made a spectacle to God, to Angels and to men. `All you', said he, `that are come to behold me may think you are come to a sad spectacle, but to me it is not so. It is the happiest day, and greatest joy that ever befell me; so that I may say with the prophet Haec dies quam fecit Dominus &c. This is the day which God hath made; a day wherein I may truly rejoice in my soul; for I am brought hither a condemned man to execution; for no other cause or reason alleged against me than that I am a Roman Catholic Priest, and a monk of the Order of St Bennet. And this I freely confessed myself. This confession and cause only bringeth me hither to execution. I give God thanks, that he has honoured me with the dignity of a Priest, and I glory that I am a monk of this holy Order, which first converted this kingdom from being heathens and infidels, to Christianity and the knowledge of God; St Augustine being their leader sent by St Gregory the Great, Pope of Rome, with forty other monks.'

Here the Sheriff interrupted him and bid him tell none of his old stories and tales, and ordered the hangman to do his Office, who immediately tied up the holy man to the gallows. What he spoke afterwards was to express himself how freely he forgave all who were accessary to his death; and to pray for the King, Queen, Prince and royal progeny; and for a happy peace for the nation and the true knowledge of God; desiring all Catholics to pray for him. Then he knelt on the side of the cart, (for being tied up he could not kneel down) and made his prayer to himself; which being ended, lifting up his eyes to heaven and giving the appointed sign, he received absolution from one of his brethren in the crowd probably the same from whom we have copied the greatest part of this narration. He then waited in silent prayer until the cart was drawn from under him and he was suffered to hang till he expired. His dead body was cut down, bowelled and quartered; but his head and quarters were not set up as usual, on the gates and bridge, but buried in the old churchyard in Moorfields; and this by petition of the common council of London to the parliament, hoping as it is supposed by this means sooner to obliterate his memory, and the impression which his comportment had made upon the people. His clothes and shirt, dyed with his blood, were redeemed of the hangman for four pounds by Father Robert whose surname was probably Sherwood. He suffered on the 30th of June 1646 in the 53d year of his age. [See his Life by Bishop Challoner also an account of his Martyrdom in the Biographical Records Vol II 57 {follg. p.353 Amp.Ms.}, also his Mortuary Bill Record LXXXVIII 324 Vol I {Records}]

$CXVII HESKETH OR HANSON, Ildephonsus or William +1644-07-26

F Ildephonsus or William Hesketh or Alphonsus Hanson, of Barrowford in Lancashire was a Secular Priest, educated at the Seminary at Seville, before he was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 1st of May 1615. Having proceeded to the Mission, he returned again to his Convent and taught Philosophy in Marchienne College and then in the Convent of St Edmund's. Returning again to the Mission in Yorkshire he obstinately refused to join the English Congregation, or to submit to the decree of Urban VIII, which required him to obey the Superiors and to live subject to the laws of the Congregation as long as he resided out of Spain, although commanded by the Spanish General under precept to do so. When President Bagshaw in 1631 published the various decrees of the different Spanish Generals, and ordered all to whom the mandate was directed in virtue of holy obedience to give, in writing, their promise of submission to him and to his successors, F Ildephonsus refused even to read the decrees of the Spanish Generals and contemptuously threw the document into the fire. This disrespectful proceeding was notified to the President, who upon this wrote a letter and commissioned two of his subjects to deliver it to him, together with a copy of his former mandate, with a request that he would peruse them, or at least return him an answer in writing. But F Ildephonsus persisting in his former contumacy and declaring that he was a Spanish Monk, and could not be obliged either by the Spanish General, or by his Holiness to show a titular authority to another Superior. He again contemptuously threw the whole documents into the fire. [See the President's Mandate Record LIX 206]

After this gross act of contumely, the President issued a mandate in which, after showing how F Ildephonsus had been employed on the Mission for many years, and during this long period had never resigned the property which he was known to have out at interest into the hands of his Superiors, as religious poverty required him to do, nor even rendered any account of it under the pretence he was not bound to acknowledge the Superiors of the English Mission, although enjoined by the Spanish Chapters and by the See of Rome to do so; and after showing that the See of Rome had power to delegate a person of any order to be the immediate Superior of any religions, he proceeded to fulminate against him; the sentence of excommunication and warned the faithful against hearing his Mass or seeking absolution at his hands until he had submitted. [See the President's Mandate in which F Ildephonsus is excommunicated Record LX 218]

This sentence was not calculated to produce the desired effect, because F Ildephonsus did not acknowledge the authority of the person from whom it emanated; and until his understanding was better informed, it was not in the nature of things, that he should pay attention to any act of authority which the President might exercise over him. He set the censure at defiance and went on as if nothing had transpired.

The President now felt the impotency of his censure as he had no power to enforce his sentence and he could only complain of his disobedience to the Spanish General. His conduct and that of some others, who rejected the authority of the President, were discussed at the following Spanish Chapter and the Spanish General was instructed to issue a mandate in 1633, in which he orders him under formal precept of obedience and under the penalty of incurring the greater excommunication to acknowledge in writing the authority of the President as his Vicar General over him, and that he was bound to live in subjection to the Laws of the English Congregation. In case he persisted in his disobedience, he was declared suspended from the Altar and ordered to repair to his Convent within three months. [See the Mandate of the Spanish General Record LXI 224] There are some grounds to suppose that he submitted to the directions of his legitimate Superior and obeyed in future the Superiors of the English Congregation. [The grounds are 1st because his name is omitted in the Mandate of the Spanish General in 1641: See Acts of Chapter of that year August 31st and 2dly because St Gregory's obtained his Spolia See Acts 1649 August 26] After some years he was made prisoner together with F Boniface Kemp and F William Middleton by the Army of the Parliament and these three Fathers were outraged by the soldiers and being driven before them in the heat of summer became so exhausted by their outrageous usage that they died about the 26 of July 1646. [The Prof of St Gregory's 40 places his death in 1646 and not as Weldon I 329 says in 1644. I have inserted his death and the two others in 1644. See Biographical Records Vol I 68]

$CXVIII KEMP, Boniface +1644-07-26

F Boniface Kemp professed at the Monastery at Montserrat was among the first who assisted in establishing a Convent at St Malo's and was made Subprior in 1612. [Weldon I 85] He was not long before he passed to the Mission, where he laboured for many years, until he fell into the hands of the Parliamentary forces and died in Yorkshire of the ill usage he met with on the 26 July 1644. [The Prof of St Gregory's 40 places his death in 1646 and not as Weldon I 329 says in 1644. I have inserted his death and the two others in 1644. See Biographical Records Vol I 68]

$CXIX MIDDLETON, William +1644-07-26

F William Middleton was taken by the Parliamentary troops and died in Yorkshire of ill usage and cruelty on the 26 of July 1644. {1646 see note at end of Ildephonsus Hesketh}

$CXX ANDERTON, James +1646-08-27

F James Anderton of Lancashire who had three other Brothers Christopher, Thomas and Robert, who afterwards joined the Benedictines, was professed at St Gregory's on the 22d of October 1623 during the Priorship of F Leander. This painful and pious Missioner died at Harding Castle in Flintshire on the 27 of August 1646. [Prof St Gregory's 99 which places his death in 1646. Weldon I 342]

$CXXI LOADER OR IRELAND, Placid +1646-12-13

F Placid Loader or Ireland was born in London and was professed at St Gregory's on the 11 October 1620. He was ordained Deacon in 1623 and Priest the year following. He died on the Mission December 13th 1646. [Prof B St Gregory's 84 I consider his name also was Ireland because Placid Ireland was evidently professed at St Gregory's as appears from the Council Book of St Edmund's 16 and he is not named in the Prof Book]

$CXXII HARTBURN, Cuthbert or Martin +1646-nd

F Cuthbert or Martin Hartburn of Stillington in Durham was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 21 of March 1614 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He left his Convent without leave for St Laurence's at Dieuleward and after some years on the Union of the Benedictines, he passed to the Cassin Congregation and was implicated in many controversies. He paid the debt of nature on the Mission in 1646. [Prof St G 21 24]

$CXXIII TAYLOR, Dominic +1647-09-02

Dominic Taylor was professed a Laybrother at Claremont, the Noviciate of St Malo's, on November 5 1615 during the Priorship of F Gabriel Gifford. Having grown old in the service of his Convent he died there on the 2 of September 1647 [Weldon I 362 86] in his 83 year.

$CXXIV GICOU, Francis +1648-01-24

F Francis Gicou, a native of Britany, was in Subdeacon Orders when he took the Habit at Claremont, the Noviciate of St Malo's; but during his Noviceship proceeded to St Edmund's where he was professed on the 18 of October 1617 as a member of St Malo's. This Father rendered eminent service to his Convent. He augmented the Library, ornamented the Sacristy, and greatly promoted the building of the new Church. When F Deodatus L'Angevin the Prior of St Malo's disagreed with his subjects, the General of the Maurist Congregation appointed F Francis Gicou Superior on November the 20 1640; and as F Gabriel Brett who was elected Prior at the Chapter of 1641 did not come to his Convent, he continued Superior till September 27 1643 and quietly governed the Convent during three years in most turbulent and difficult times. Having devoted 25 years to the confessional and other works of christian charity in the town of St Malo's, he died beloved by his Brethren and by all who knew him on the 24 of January 1648 in his 63d year and was buried near the confessional of the Chapel of St Symphorianus. [Weldon I 86 362]

$CXXV COX, Benedict or Robert +1648-05-23

F Benedict or Robert Cox was professed at St Laurence's before the Union. This eminently religious Father, having long laboured upon the Mission, was taken and condemned to death on account of his Priesthood; but being reprieved for a time, he endured a long and tedious martyrdom in prison and died in the Clink on the 23d of May 1648. [Weldon I 367 From the Acts of 1649 Aug 28 he was then dead]

$CXXVI NATHAL OR MATTHEWS, Constance +1649-nd

F Constance Nathal or Matthews was either professed at St Laurence's or aggregated to that Convent after the Union. He was residing at St Edmund's in 1619 and obtained permission to go to F Leander the Vicar General who was then at Doway, being afraid of taking the plague which was on the increase at Paris. He afterwards proceeded to the Mission and died there about the year 1649. [Council B St Edm August 26 Acts 1649 Aug 25]

$CXXVII CURRE, Nicholas +1649-08-05

F Nicholas Curre was professed at St Laurence's before the Union; and after labouring many years on the Mission he closed his life at Weston in Warwickshire on the 5th of August 1649. [Weldon I 366 F Curre was Subprior of St Gregory's in 1624 Prof B St Greg 109 and he was elected a Definitor of the Congregation at Chap 1625. He was Vice-Prior of St Edmund's in 1631 and passed to the Mission in the following year Coun B St Edm 45]

$CXXVIII BENSON OR HADDOCK, Robert +1650-02-08

F Robert Benson or Haddock [F Haddock arrived in London for the Mission in Septr 1607 F Baker 496] was professed at the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella and was Subprior of the Monks belonging to the Spanish Congregation when he was elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union in 1617. At the Chapter of 1625 he was elected Provincial of York; and at the following Chapter the first Cathedral Prior of Durham. This Father was considered one of the most learned and spiritually scienced of those who had been brought up in Spain. [Baker on the Mission 496 Weldon I 367] Having laboured with great fruit on the Mission he died full of years in Staffordshire on the 8 of February 1650. As he had intended during his life to make a foundation for two religious at St Edmund's the General Chapter of 1633 ordered a portion of his peculium to be appropriated to that purpose. [Acts 1653 Septr 13]

$CXXIX EVERARD, Dunstan +1650-02-10

F Dunstan Everard was born in Suffolk and took the Habit at St Malo's during the Priorship of F Gabriel Gifford. He then was allowed to proceed to St Gregory's where he was professed for the House of St Malo's on the 24 of March 1616. [Prof of St G 47] He laboured strenuously on the Mission and converted Lady Falkland, the wife of the great Lord Falkland, Viceroy of Ireland, most of whose family ultimately followed her example and embraced the Catholic faith after the death of their father. [Weldon I 425] He suffered imprisonments for the faith which he professed and defended in several disputations the doctrines of the Catholic faith against some of the most able opponents of his religion. Being sent into exile, he undertook to reform the Abbey of St Nicholas in 1633 and F Paul Robinson was directed to accompany him as his associate in this laudable undertaking. [Coun Book of St Edmund's 55] Soon after this, President Leander directed the Prior of St Malo's to provide him with support. [Records Vol II 71 at the end of this Biography] Some years after we find him residing as a Conventual at St Edmund's. [Coun B St Edmunds 85 this was in 1641] He closed his life in the Island of Jersey on the 10 of February 1650. His body was conveyed with honour to the Church of his own Convent at St Malo's.

[Weldon I 367 From a Manuscript Life of Lady Falkland in the Archives at Lisle we learn that this singular gifted Lady had intended to have been reconciled to the Church by F Dunstan Everard, but owing to circumstances, she was reconciled by F Dunstan Pettinger in my Lord Ormonds Stable and that he continued her Ghostly Father for a time. This took place when Lord Falkland had been three years Viceroy in Ireland which would be in {1625 corr} King James ordered her to remain a prisoner in her House during his pleasure. Her Lord removed his children from being under her charge and was so irritated that he withdrew the income which he allowed her so that she was reduced to great want.] Addenda No IX: No IX Page 105 Weldon I 367 writes Obiit in Insula Jersey Ingenio, Pietate Doctrina conspicuus RP Dunstanus Everard Maclovii professus, Fidelitate in regem, Affectu in Patriam ac zelo in Religionem Nobilis, sed et exilio et carceribus pro Fide, frequentibusque cum famosissimis Haereticis disceptationibus quibus plurimorum Conversionem egregie promovit et executus est. Ejus corpus inde maximo cum honore transmissum in suo Templo Maclovii sepultum February 10th 1650

$CXXX BLACKSTONE, Francis +1650-03-06

F Francis Blackstone was born in and was professed at St Gregory's on October 4th 1626 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. During the civil wars in England he devoted his services in assisting the Catholic soldiers who had ventured their lives in the service of the King. He closed his life on the 6 of March 1650. [Weldon I 367]

$CXXXI WARREN, Bernard +1650-10-21

F Bernard Warren of Cheshire had taken the Habit of the Cluny Order from the hands of F Francis Walgrave at Aunay, but being desirous of joining the Convent of St Edmund's, he was required to get his release from all ties to the Cluny Congregation before his petition could be granted: Having succeeded in this, he was admitted to the Habit and after his year of probation was professed on the 11th of July 1648. He appears to have been priested before he closed his life in his Convent on the 21st of October 1650. [Council Book St Edmund's 125 132 134 Weldon I 475 styles him F the Necrologies style him Br]

$CXXXII GARTER, John +1650-11-22

F John Garter of Northamptonshire was professed of St Edmund's on January 15 1639 during the Priorship of F Gabriel Brett. He was appointed Cellerarius 1642 before he was ordained Priest to which honour he was promoted the year following. In 1644 he was sent to reside at the Priory of La Celle and from that period appears to have divided his time between the two places until he prematurely paid the debt of nature on November 22nd 1650. [Council B St Edm 96 100 Weldon I 214 From whom also we learn that F Bernard Warren was at La Celle in 1648] being the Subprior of the Priory of La Celle.

$CXXXIII BATT, Anthony +1651-01-12

F Anthony Batt was professed at St Laurence's before the Union and was a great promoter and practiser of Claustral discipline and does not appear to have been sent upon the Mission. At the Chapter of 1633 he was elected the first Cathedral Prior of Peterborough. In 1640 he was Conventual at St Edmund's and the year following he was appointed Superior and Master of Novices at the Priory of La Celle. [Coun Book St Edmund's 81 89 94] which was then the Noviciate of St Edmund's, but being no ways disposed to take the charge of others, he petitioned the Chapter held in that year to be permitted to live as a private Monk and also either to be released from the payment of contributions, or to transfer his Cathedral Priorship to some other person who had the means of paying. To this latter request, the Chapter considered that the Conventual Priors ought to pay for those who are their subjects if they receive no resources from their benefices, or otherwise these Priorships would have to be conferred on those who could pay them. [Acts 1641 August 28] The Fathers however declined to interfere in disposing of individuals; but F Anthony was removed the following year to the house of his profession, [Coun Book St Edmund's 81 89 94*] and devoted the remainder of his life to study and the practice of his religious duties. He closed his exemplary life on the 12th of January 1651. [Weldon I 367] He translated Blosius into English and at the request of some Fathers in England he composed a Catechism which the Chapter of 1641 approved of, but could not find the means of printing owing to the necessities of the Congregation. [Acts 1641 August 28*] F Gabriel Brett at the Chapter of 1645 generously offered 300 florins to print his Catechism which was graciously accepted but this money probably never came to hand. [This sum was derived from a pension granted to him by Archbishop Gifford his Uncle. See an account of it in Weldon I 336]

Addenda No XII: Dr Oliver in the Rambler March 1851 states that F Anthony Batt was the author of A Hive of Sacred Honie Combes containing most sweet and Heavenly Counsels taken out of the works of St Bernard a small 8vo printed at Doway 1631. The Dedication to Queen Henrietta Maria is dated from Dieuleward 13th February 1631 also of Thesaurus Absconditus in agro Dominico inventus, in duas partes, 1v Precationes, 2v Meditationes printed in duodecimo at Paris in 1641.'

Addenda No XXVII: F Anthony Batt printed a little Treatise of the Confraternity of the Scapular of St Benedict's Order in 1639, approved of together with the Rule and Life of St Benedict by C Reyner Doway August 27th 1639. The Treatise of the Scapular is dedicated to Lord Windsor by your honoured servant A.B. The Life and the Rule is dedicated to Mrs Anne Carie by your devoted Beadsman B.E.T., Brother Aemilian Throckmorton. The Life and the Rule of St Bennet was translated by C.F. of the Holy Order of St Benedict, Br Cuthbert Fursden.

$CXXIV REYNER, Clement +1651-03-17

F Clement Reyner descended from ancient family in Yorkshire, was professed at St Laurence's soon after the Convent was established and proceeded to Doway to study his Philosophy and Divinity in the University. Being endowed with great talents, he afterwards publicly lectured at the College of St Vedast's and took the degree of Doctor of Divinity. [He was elected a Magister of Theology at the Chapter in 1629] This eminent Father combined great learning with great virtue and was soon employed in official life. At the first Chapter of the Congregation in 1621 he was appointed Secretary to the Congregation and to the President, and continued to discharge these offices for the two next quadriennium; but before the last was expired President Barlow gave him active employment.

As it was generally believed at the time that the Emperor Ferdinand would shortly restore the Ecclesiastical property which he had recovered in Germany from the Lutherans, the President commissioned F Clement to proceed to Germany as Procurator of the Congregation to treat with the Benedictines of the Bursfeld Congregation, and endeavour to obtain a grant from them of some of the Monasteries which had long been in the hands of the Lutherans in case the Church property should be restored. The Bursfeld Fathers on May 14 1628 generously agreed to make over several monasteries subject to certain conditions. The year following the Emperor Ferdinand issued his celebrated edict commanding his commissioners to reclaim from their present unauthorized possessors all the ecclesiastical property confiscated since the treaty of Passaw.

A wide field was now opened for F Clement to display his talents, activity and indefatigable industry. In the following month he obtained from his Imperial Majesty, not only the ratification of the grant of the Abbey of Cismar, but also his Majesty's consent for any other Abbeys to be given to the English Congregation. He afterwards obtained the grant of several other Abbeys from the Bursfeld Fathers; amongst these was the Monasteries of Rintelin in Westphalia and of Lamspring in the Diocese of Hildesheim for English Nuns, but many years passed before he could obtain possession of the latter.

About the beginning of 1633 he obtained possession of Rintelin; and during the short period he retained it in his hands, he entered into a public disputation with Dr Steckman the Superintendent of Hesse, who, though esteemed by the Calvinists a very learned man, was so confounded that within a very few days after he died of grief exclaiming to his last breath `O Clement though hast killed me.' Later on he entered into a second public dishortation with Dr Gisenius, Superintendent of the Lutherans at Brunswick, which lasted for three continual days, and this heresiarch was so confounded that at last he had little to say in his defence; so that he would have been covered with infamy, if the famous Gustavus Adolphus at the head of a victorious army, had not entered the town, and compelled F Clement and his associates to withdraw from the Monastery and to make their escape by swimming across the river. [Townson 205 Weldon I 367]

F Clement proceeded to St Gregory's at Doway and arriving whilst the General Chapter was sitting, he took his seat among the Fathers as the Prior of Rintelin, although he never after could recover possession of it. This eminent Father had now proved himself equal to undertake the most weighty affairs of the Body and deserving to fill the first Offices of the Congregation; he was now elected a Definitor Judge and President second elect. Soon after this he was offered the mitred Abbey of St Blandin near Ghent in Flanders of the annual value of eighty thousand Imperials [Townson 153] which he refused; but in obedience to the directions of President Leander he undertook the management of the Priory until the Abbatial Office was filled up. [Townson 153*]

On the death of the President he succeeded to the Office in 1635 and was elected by the Definitors of the Congregation the Cathedral Prior of Canterbury. Owing to the wars the meeting of the next Chapter was postponed for two years till 1639. And then President Reyner most pressingly agreed to continue all the officials of the Congregation during the two next years, declaring it to be impossible for him to discharge the duties of the Presidential Office and of the Priory of St Blandin, which he could not now abandon in the opinion of prudent men as long as the Abbatial Office continued vacant without serious detriment to the Convent. After long and serious deliberation, the Fathers unanimously came to the resolution of thanking him for his pacific government and of continuing him in his Presidential Office; and having authorized him to appoint a Vicar in England in the same manner as he had a Vicar in France, they considered he ought through obedience to continue in office. The President the replied, `may God's will and yours be done.' [Acts 1639 August 12] He continued to reside at the Priory until the expiration of his office. At length brighter prospects rose in Germany and he proceeded there to obtain possession of the Convent of Lamspring. By a treaty concluded between the Elector of Cologne and the Dukes of Brunswick and Lunenberg, the larger portion of the diocese of Hildesheim was restored to the Church. And as the Elector of Cologne had agreed in 1630 to forego his plan of erecting a seminary at Lamspring in favour of the English Congregation, on condition that the former Nunnery there should be constituted an Abbey, whose Abbot should not be quadrennial as the other Superiors of the English Congregation but for life. He now directed the civil authorities of Hildesheim to confer upon F Clement the actual administration of the whole Abbey which they did on the 19 of November 1643. [Townson 123 126 127]

The Abbey of Lamspring when it came into the hands of the English Congregation was in a deplorable condition both as to its buildings and finances. The Lutherans, who had held possession of it above a century, had taken no care to prevent its buildings from falling into decay and ruin; and the tithes belonging to it were mortgaged to the amount of twelve thousand Imperials (£2,400) Yet notwithstanding these disadvantages F Clement easily foresaw that the Abbey with its extensive landed property would prove ultimately of great advantage to his Congregation.

Soon after he entered upon his charge, he proceeded to reconcile the Church, to say Mass publicly and to have sermons preached to the people on Sundays and Holydays. He then began to repair the buildings, upon which he expended three thousand Imperials of his own peculium and endeavoured to make them ready for the reception of those Fathers who would be directed to join him in his arduous undertaking.

At the time of Chapter approached he proceeded to St Gregory's where it was held and assisted at its deliberations. He explained to the assembled Fathers the difficulties of his undertakings and petitioned that the Abbey of Lamspring might be incorporated and erected into a Capitular residence of the Congregation; and that he might be allowed, notwithstanding the privileges of exemption, to receive the confirmation of his Abbatial dignity from the Elector of Cologne, as Bishop of Hildesheim and the benediction attached to a blessed Abbot from his suffragan, because the Elector would never allow the Congregation otherwise to hold the Abbey in peace. The Fathers acceded to these requests and ordered the Abbey of Lamspring to be enrolled among the other Convents in the order in which it had been acquired. They moreover decreed that the Abbot should give place to the President only during the schism {sic}, and that both in Capitular Acts, and every where, lastly the Abbot was declared subject to the general contributions of the English Congregation. [Acts of Chapter 1645 August 24]

F Clement on his return from Doway was accompanied by two Fathers and two religious and on reaching his Abbey he appointed F Laurence Appleton Prior; F Boniface Chandler, who had been his associate all along Cellerarius; F Hilarion Wake Junior and Novice Master and F Langen a German Monk the Prefect of the Kitchen. These with the two religious Bernard Palmes and Clement Meutisse, formed the new Convent. On the following day he held a Council, in which he fixed the limits of the enclosure and arranged the times for the various duties of Conventual life. The constitutional fasts were ordered to be observed and flesh meat was never to be allowed to the Community at Supper. [Townson 129 styles Bernard Palmes F Bernard Palmer as he is incorrect to the name so also I think he is incorrect in styling him Father. Br Bernard was only professed at St Gregory's on the 27 of December 1643 and as he was not named to any office there is reason to suppose he was not then Priested. Townson does not name F Clement Meutisse as accompanying his Abbot, although he must have done so, as he was professed at St Gregory's during Chapter a member of the Convent of Lamspring and we know for certain he was there afterwards]

F Clement was then consecrated a mitred Abbot with power of giving Minor Orders. The remainder of his days were consumed in the midst of contentions, hardships and privations, which were greatly increased in consequence of the bigotry of the Townspeople who looked upon him as a foreigner, an intruder and a bigot. The income arising from the Abbey was unequal to meet its necessary expenditure. The ruinous condition of the buildings was a continuous drain upon his resources. The heavy contributions and other exactions amidst the confusion of war were to be submitted to and paid; and the whole domestic economy of the Abbey had to be gradually resuscitated, and was very costly. Owing to these expenses he continued always straitened in his means, and was unable to commence a School which he had much at heart and institute both public and private studies.

At length this great and worthy Abbot being worn out with his exertions, labours and cares, terminated his valuable and holy life in the Monastery of St Michael's at Hildesheim, where he had gone on foot according to his custom, on the 17 of March 1651 and was there buried. The Abbot of that Monastery is said to have exclaimed on the occasion, `The great light of the holy Order was extinct.' The remains of the Abbot Clement were afterward removed to Lamspring on the completion of the new Church and were deposited in the nave of the Church before the steps, by which you ascend to the Choir, in a small oaken coffin on which was a leaden plate with this inscription on it

Clemens Reyner Natione Anglus SS Theologiae Dr hujus Lampsringensis Monasterii Abbas primus; obiit Anno 1651, Die 17 Martii, aetatis 62, Regiminis 8, in Monasterio S Michaelis Hildesii, ibidemque sepultus; eodemque ejusdem mensis, die Anno 1692, huc Lamspringam translata pia ossa requiescunt. [Townson 154]  Abbot Clement during the eight years of his administration only professed one choir monk at Lamspring.

$CXXXV ELMER, Jocelin +1651-07-01

F Jocelin Elmer was professed at St Laurence's before the Union. He was eminent for his talents, noted for his austere and holy life, and was generally employed in active life by his Body. He was a celebrated preacher both in French and in English, a strenuous assertor of Claustral discipline which he enforced upon others and practised himself during the whole of his life.

In 1620 he was elected the first Prior of St Laurence's after the Union, though he was generally detained at St Malo's until the meeting of the first General Chapter in the following year. In 1625 he was elected the Prior of that Convent and during his administration he erected a new Convent and Church there which proved such an ornament to the Town. At the Chapter of 1629 he was again elected Prior of St Laurence's at a time when that Convent was in great repute on account of its observance of universal abstinence from flesh meat [At the Chapter 1633 Lectae sunt literae Rmi Episcopi Principis Virdunensis et Praepositi Dei Custodiensis aliorumque Nobilium quibus obnixe postulabatur ut RP Jocelinus ad Dei Custodienses posset reverti ob fructum aedificationem spiritualis ipsius labore et pietate in oppido illo multiplicatum et decretum est per 17 suffragia posse hac vice reelligi in Priorem dicti Conventus. Acts of Chapter Vol I 33] and its rigorous enforcement of Claustral discipline. After continuing Prior for twelve years he was promoted to the Presidentship in 1641. This zealous and austere Father was a great admirer of universal abstinence from flesh meat, and although he himself had asked the Chapter of 1639 to release him from the Priorship on account of his declining years and bodily weakness, which probably was owing in part to his rigid life, yet he thought in his zeal he would be conferring a great benefit on the Congregation by now using his Presidential influence in introducing the practice of universal abstinence from flesh meat in the Convents of St Edmund's and St Malo's.

He first treated with F Francis Cape, the Prior of St Edmund's, who was in favour of the measure, and then proceeded himself to the Convent and on the 1 of January 1643 took the sense of the Community by their free and secret suffrages whether they were willing to observe in future the discipline of universal abstinence from flesh meat. Out of a Community of fourteen religious eleven voted for its observance; two voted against it and one declined to vote upon the question; so that the question was carried and their zealous resolution was put in execution. [Council Book St Edmund's 99] The Convent of St Malo's which was not noted for its observance of religious discipline, in order to curry the favour of the President, petitioned to be allowed to observe univseral abstinence from flesh meat in future. Their request was joyfully acceded to by the President on the 31 of October 1643 and this rigid practice was introduced into that Convent [See Records Vol I 278] If however the President congratulated himself upon the good which he had accomplished, his satisfaction was not of any long continuance. Experience soon taught him that there was a zeal which was not according to prudence, and that his well meant endeavours, if not timely changed, would be productive of serious consequences. Three of the Conventuals at St Edmund's who did not agree to practice universal abstinence from flesh meat escaped from this Convent; and at the following Chapter petitions were presented from the two Convents of St Malo's and St Edmund's to return to their former constitutional diet. The Fathers justly complained of the vacillation of their subjects, but granted their requests. F Jocelin was now appointed a Definitor Judge; and at the following Chapter of 1649 he was elected the Prior of St Malo's and Vicar in France. This holy man closed his virtuous life on the 1st of July 1651 in the second year of his government and was buried in his Church at St Malo's. [F Jocelin Elmer was renowned for his skill in Physic and remarkable for his knowledge of Chymistry. His style of writing was flowery and beautiful. I insert a specimen from his Acts of the Visit of St Laurence's in 1642 April 13. Qui ambulat fraudulenter revelat arcana et qui perfidus est secreta pandit: Verba autem sapientum statera ponderantur et quod secretum est apud ipsos non fit rumor, quia fideles sunt et magna charitate religionis tenentur: nihil ergo de Congregatione nostra seu domo vel quovis fratre extraneis personis, revelari, aut manifestari sive dicidebet nisi quod ad Dei gloriam et honorem ad religionis et fratrum decorem et audientium adificationem pertinet: Nemo privata delicta in genere vel in specie laicis aut quibusvis aliis quoquo modo patefacere audeat quod si quis praesumserit acerbissime puniatur. See Also Record LXXIV 269 Record LXXIX 278-283]

$CXXXVI WAFTE, Anselm +1652-03-20

F Anselm Wafte died on the 20th of March 1652

$CXXXVII FITZJAMES, Nicholas +1652-05-16

F Nicholas Fitzjames of Redlinche in Somersetshire [Dr Barlow in his account of F Fitzjames in the Profession Book of St Gregory's says page 2 Vivit adhuc dictus Nicholaus Fitzjames in Missione Anglica strenue et laudabiliter laborans. Fuit per aliquot annos Prior Sti Laurentii in Dei Custodiae vulgo Dolowart. Though it is difficult to reconcile this statement with what appears to be a contemporary writer whose paper is inserted in Weldon I 22 yet I ought to have entered him the Prior of St Laurence's in the Text in 1610] was a Secular Clergyman and entered his Noviceship on the 12 of May 1607, the very day F Augustine Bradshaw the Vicar General began to live Conventually with his assistants in the house hired of the Trinitarians at Doway. After his year of probation under F Leander his Novice Master he was professed of the Spanish Congregation on the 15 of May 1608. He passed soon after this to St Laurence's at Dieuleward and was Novice Master to Dr Gifford. He was a man of undaunted spirit in a diminutive body. For many years he laudably discharged the duties of a faithful Missioner and died at Stourton in Wiltshire on the 16 of May 1652 at the age of 92. [See Prof St G 2 Weldon I 161]

$CXXXVIII RISDEN, Cuthbert or Thomas +1652-07-09

F Cuthbert or Thomas Risden was professed at St Edmund's on November 30 1640 and died in his Convent July 9 1652 [F Francis Cape the Prior of St Edmund's in a Council on the 15 of September 1642 `propounded and it was unanimously concluded that upon the receipt of n sterling which was the remainder of the portion of F Cuthbert Risden he would oblige ourselves, to wit this our convent of St Edmund's, by an Act made which was afterwards signed and sealed by the Council to allow the aforenamed F Cuthbert Risden whensoever he should go for England 12£ sterling per annum so long as he should live there for his maintenance and no longer']

$CXXXIX SIMPSON, Andrew +1652-11-13

F Andrew Simpson was educated amongst the Jesuits and was considered a good Grecian Scholar and advanced in his Philosophy when he was professed at St Edmund's in December 1641. [In a Council on the last day of February F Francis Cape the Prior `proposed a doubt proceeding from F Rudesind Barlow about the validity of Br Andrew Simpson's Profession, which was, that in regard he was clothed for them of Doway, but within three weeks after, for that there was no great assurance of payment of his pension turned over to us to be professed by us of this our Convent of St Edmund's and the year of his probation expired, was immediately admitted to profession; whereas he ought to have expected three weeks more, to have satisfied for the three weeks in the beginning. Whereas he was reputed a Novice of theirs of Doway, the validity of his profession was suspected. But the very Revd Father President deemed the contrary, with whom after full deliberation had agreed all the Revd Fathers of the Council, yet concluded for preventing future scruples and evasions on both sides, that the said Brother should again tacitly (as they say) ratify what before solemnly he had by holy vow promised, yet not so as he should think it was yet left to his choice to be professed or not.'] Soon after he was ordained Priest, it was agreed by the Council of the House that he should proceed to Rome in 1643 to assist F Wilfred Selby the Benedictine Procurator who had been his protege. [Council B St Edmund's 101] But probably his journey did not take place as he was certainly in his Convent some time after.

On the introduction of universal abstinence from flesh meat into his Convent he became much dissatisfied and at last fled from it in company with two other Juniors in 1645. On the meeting of Chapter during the summer of the same year, it was agreed on the petition of Dr Barlow, to grant them a full pardon upon their humble submission and return to their Convent. [Acts of Chapter 1645 Vol I 151] But F Andrew would not accept these generous terms. He made friends with the Commendatory Prior of La Celle and petitioned the Pope, under the plea of the poverty of St Edmund's, to be allowed to remain at La Celle and enjoy the living which was offered him there. [Records Vol I 276 277] But this was opposed by his Superiors, who called upon the Court of Rome to enforce his return to his Convent. He afterwards obtained leave from the Archbishop of Paris in 1646 to live with the Cluny Monks at Mairmouther: but after three years he petitioned the Chapter of 1649 to be received again into the Congregation. And although this was opposed by the Prior and Convent at Paris, the President was authorized upon the acknowledgement of his fault to place him in any of the other Convents of the Congregation. [Acts of Chapter 1649 Vol I 196] He closed his life in a Benedictine Monastery in Normandy on the 13 of November 1652.

$CXL WOODHOPE OR WHITE, Thomas +1653-01-27

F Thomas Woodhope or White was born in Worcestershire and was professed in 1622 of the Convent of St Gregory's. It appears for reasons now unknown his Profession was considered doubtful and the Prior and Council of St Edmund's gave their consent that he should renew it as a member of their house; but afterwards on the request of the Prior of St Gregory's, it was arranged he should be considered a member of St Gregory's. [Council B St Edmund's 9-10] He lived for some time in the family of Mr Sheldon of Weston and Beoley in Worcestershire. At the Chapter of 1649 he would have been elected the Prior of St Gregory's but owing to the Convent of St Vedast being divided into three parts and each pretending the right of Election was vested in them, no new election at St Gregory's could take place; so that the old Prior F John Meutisse was under the necessity of continuing in Office. The Chapter however took compassion on him and to relieve the anguish of mind appointed F Thomas his Vice Prior with full power to discharge all the duties of a Prior, with the exception of clothing and professing Novices and presenting religious to Holy Orders. And moreover agreed to admit him as a Capitular Member at the next Chapter in virtue of his Office. [Acts of Chapter 1649 August 13 Sept 5] But that time he was not doomed to see, as he was carried off by the plague which was prevalent at Doway on the 27 of January 1653. He left a work entitled The Obiits or Characters of several eminent Benedictines which was afterwards enlarged by F Vincent Faustus Sadler. [Dodd III 313]

Addenda No II: Dr Oliver in the Rambler May 1851 says of White, Thomas, otherwise Woodhope `Mr Dodd incorrectly reports on the authority of Wood's Athenae Oxon. that he was chosen Prior of St Gregory's Doway and died there of the plague in 1654. The fact is that he was never Prior of Doway, that he was President of his Brethren when he died at St Edmund's Paris 14th October 1655' I have stated in the text how the case was. Dr Oliver has confounded Thomas White with F Claudius White and Mr Dodd is virtually correct.

$CXLI GALLI, Bennet +16**-12-05

Bennet Galli was professed a Laybrother at St Malo's where he died on the 5th of December 16**

$CXLII SOUTHCOT, Amandus +1653-06-08

F Amandus Southcot was born in Devonshire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 29 of September 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. This grave and worthy Missioner died on the 8th of June 1653 at Mr Thomas Kirkham's House near Exeter. [Weldon I 381]

$CXLIII MOLINER, Claudius +1653-06-19

Claudius Moliner professed at St Laurence's before the Union died in his Convent on the 19 of June 1653.

$CXLIV BARTER, John +1653-07-01

Br John Barter, who was a Novice at St Gregory's at the same time with his father John Barter, was carried off by the plague on the 1st of July 1653. [Weldon I 381. The Necrologies place his death on July 11th and the death of F Christopher Anderton on July 1st. It is certain however from the Acts of Chapter 1653 August 9 that John Barter died first so I have put his death on the 1st of July.]

$CXLV ANDERTON, Christopher +1653-07-11

F Christopher Anderton was born in Lancashire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 24 of August 1624 during the Priorship of F Leander. He petitioned the Chapter of 1639 to leave his Convent for the Mission, but although he was admitted to deserve this favour from the President on account of his good conduct, yet his services were required by his Convent until otherwise provided with Professors. [Acts 1639 Aug 20] At the Chapter of 1641 he was elected a Definitor of the Congregation. At the following Chapter he was appointed Secretary to the President. [F Anderton

resided at Rome during the quadriennium with President Selby.] And at the Chapter of 1649 he was appointed a Definitor Judge. This deserving Father whose life had been devoted to his Convent was carried off by the plague on the 11 of July 1653.

$CXLVI CARY, Placid or Henry +1653-02-17

F Placid or Henry Cary, son of Viscount Falkland, was a convert to the Catholic faith and was professed at St Edmund's on the 17 of February 1641 during the Priorship of F Thomas Anderton. This promising young man was Secretary to the President when he was prematurely taken out of life on the 17 of February 1653.

$CXLVII OWEN, John +1654-01-06

F John Owen was professed at St Gregory's before the Union in 1619. He possessed considerable parts and though tinged with scrupulosity, yet he rendered good service on the Mission, where he died in Drury Lane in London on the 6 January 1654. [Weldon I 385 who says he was of Doway although his name does not appear in the Profession Book.]

$CXLVIII BAPTHORPE, Mellitus or Robert +1654-05-29

F Mellitus or Robert Bapthorpe took the Habit at the Monastery of St Remigius on August 1 1608 for the Convent of St Laurence's and proceeded soon after with F Leander to begin the formation of a Convent there. [Annales Sti Laurentii apud Weldon I 22] After his year of probation was expired he was professed of the Spanish Congregation soon after F Gabriel Gifford. He was afterwards sent to St Malo's to assist in beginning that Convent; and after having acted as Superior for near a year in the absence of the Prior, he proceeded to the Mission in 1619 [Weldon I 87] where he continued till his death on the 29 of May 1654 [Weldon I 386] which took place in the North of England.

$CXLIX CONSTABLE, Francis +1654-05-28

F Francis Constable was professed at St Laurence's before the Union. This worthy Father was a zealous Missioner for many years and was much afflicted in the latter part of his life with the Flatus Hypocondriacus, in a violent fit of which he died on the 28 of May 1654 [Weldon I 386] in Drury Lane London.

$CL DE STO ILDEFONSO, George +1655-01-08

F George de Sto Ildefonso born at Sculthorpe in Norfolkshire was a Secular Priest when he was professed on the Mission as a Member of St Gregory's on the 29 of June 1622 during the Priorship of F Leander. He died in a good old age on the Mission on January 8th 1655. [Prof S G 95]

$CLI MOORE, Gregory +1655-02-12

F Gregory Moore was born in Carlisle and was a Secular Priest when he was professed on the Mission as a Member of St Gregory's on the 2d of July 1622 during the Priorship of F Leander. He paid the debt of nature in England on the 12 of February 1655. [Prof St G 94]

$CLII COMMINGS, John +1655-05-30

F John Commings a painful Missioner died in the North on the 30 of May 1655 [Weldon I 386] [More modern note is this Placid Hartburn Sep 29 1644?]

$CLIII PALMER, William +1655-05-31

F William Palmer professed in Italy of the Cassin Congregation, possessed great learning and rare perfections. After long and fruitful labourer the Mission he died happily at Longwood in Hampshire in his 80th year on the 31 of May 1655. [Weldon I 386]

$CLIV BENNET OR WHITE, Claude +1655-10-14

F Claude Bennet or White [F Claudius was commonly called and known by the name of Fat Mr White. Weldon I 386] was professed at St Laurence's about the year 1606. This eminent Father was noted for his singular integrity and was gifted with an Apostolical spirit which enabled him to bear with fortitude the confinement of the prison for the sake of his religion. He was a short time Conventual of St Edmund's in 1620 and then proceeded to the Mission, probably a second time after he had been sent into exile. [Council Book of St Edmund's 1,3.] At the Chapter of 1633 F Leander was elected President, but as he could not enter upon Office until he was confirmed by the Spanish General, F Claude was elected President during the interval; and soon after the close of Chapter he published the first edition of the Missionary Constitutions. He was also elected a Definitor Judge and continued in this Office till the Chapter of 1639; when he ceased to fill it because he could not obtain permission to reside out of England, as he was obliged to do as a Definitor, according to the law which was then in force in the Congregation.

During the thirty six years of his Missionary life, he lived at one time with Lord Windsor and during the last four years at Weston in Warwickshire until his election to the Presidentship when he would have to reside in one of the Convents. At length worn out with age and exertion, he undertook a long journey to St Edmund's in the discharge of the duties of his Presidential Office, to which his enfeebled frame was unequal and was seized with a complaint under which he continued to labour for 19 days suffering the most excruciating pains with the greatest constancy and equanimity of mind. After receiving all the rites of the Church he closed his virtuous life amidst the regrets of his brethren on the 14 of October 1655. As the Convents of St Edmund's at that time had no burial place of its own, he was honourably buried by the General of the Maurist Congregation in the Abbatial Church of that Order at St Germaines at Paris. F Claude died in his 72d year, 46th of his priesthood and the 50th of his profession. [Weldon I 386. Ellis apud Weldon in his panegyric on F Claudius White I 381 says, Tandemque toti Congregationi praepositus, quam biennio et verbo et exemplo egregie erudivit et administravit; atque una praesertim in re prae relquis de Congregatione sua optime meritus quod Patribus in Missione laborantibus saluberrimas Constitutiones sanxivit et in lucem edidit; quod valde necessarium a decessoribus tamen mondum praestitum duos annos cum hisce utilissimis studiis collocasset, ad praemium est evocatus. No reliance can be placed on the accuracy of these rhetorical effusions. The truth of the case is the Missionary Constitutions were approved of by Deputies at the Chapter of 1633 (see Acts Aug 4), and were published soon after by F Claude whom had been elected the temporary President on the death of F Sigebert Bagshaw.]

Addenda No X: No X Page 122 His Mortuary Bill ran Anno 1655 Die Octob 14 inter 1m et 2m matutinam Parisiis in Conventu S Edmundi Regis et Martyris Ordinis S Benedicti Congregationis Anglicanae, omnibus Ecclesiae Catholicae Sacramentis rite munitus, ex hac vita migravit RAPP Claudius Bennet alias White ejusdem Ordinis et Congregationis anno aetatis 72, Sacerdotii 46, Professionis 50, qui post exactos in Apostolica Missione ad Anglos 36 annos, post toleratos in Fidei Confessione Carceris squalores, post gesta sepius tum Definitoris tum Provincialis munia ea certe cum laude, ut ejuismodi onere vacare nunquam ipsi permissum sit. Tandem secundo ad Praesidis sive superioris Generalis dignitatem assumptus, dum officio suo strenue incumbit, iterque agit perquam arduum fractoque penio et laboribus corpori molestissimum inde morbum, ut a peritis judicatum est, contraxit. Qui acutissimis doloribus decem et novem dierum spatio summam et usque ad extremum victricem animi constantiam, et aqualibilitatem explorans, quod unicum potuit vitam quidem ipsi caducam ademit, nobis vero gemibundis filiis suus piisimum Patrem. Honorifice sepultus est in Ecclesiae Abbatiali S Germani a pratis in Sacello S Margarita ejusdem Ecclesiae Exequias peragenti Rmo Donno D Joanne Darel Superiore Generali Congregationis Sti Mauri. Weldon I 386

$CLV HUDDLESTON, Richard +1655-11-26

F Richard Huddleston the youngest son of Andrew Huddleston of Farrington Hall in Lancashire was born in 1583. As soon as he had attained a sufficient age to pursue his studies to advantage, he was sent to Rheims to study for humanities and became an exquisite proficient in Poetry, and Rhetoric: he then proceeded to Rome to study his philosophy and Divinity. When he had completed his studies, he left the English College to embrace a religious state and was professed at Mount Cassino. Here he devoted several years to solitude, prayer and a close application to the study of the scriptures, and Fathers, and the Councils of the Church. At length being thoroughly qualified for an Apostolical Missioner he was sent by his Superiors to England. This eminent Father laboured incessantly in his vocation and like another St Augustine, being endowed with an Evangelical spirit, he exerted his strayed countrymen to the fold of Christ.

And it pleased the Divine Goodness to second his words and bless his endeavours with extraordinary success, so that many of the aristocratic families, such as the Irelands, Watertons, Middletons, Trappes's, Thimbelbyes in Yorkshire, the Prestons, Andertons, Downs's, Staffords, Sherburns, Inglebyes in Lancashire with numberless others of all states and conditions owe their respective reconciliations to the Church to this extraordinary Benedictine. After labouring for thirty years, he closed his life at Stockeld in Yorkshire on the 26 of November 1655 in his 72nd year leaving behind him the sweet odour of virtue to posterity. He wrote a book entitled A Short and plain way to the faith and Church which was afterwards published by his nephew F John Huddleston. Charles II occupied himself in reading this Work in Manuscript when he was concealed at Moseley and it appears to have made a lasting impression upon his mind. [Weldon I 387 533]

$CLVI GRATIAN, John +1656-02-25

John Gratian was professed a Laybrother at St Laurence's and after serving his Convent about a quarter of a century died on the 25 of February 1656.

$CLVII THROCKMORTON, Amilian or Ferdinand +1656-07-22

F Amilian or Ferdinand Throckmorton of the ancient family of that name was professed at St Edmund's on the 8th of February 1623 during the Priorship of F Sigebert Bagshaw. He was ordained Priest in 1627 and devoted his life to the service of his Convent. In 1639 he resided at the Priory of La Celle, and from that period he appears to have divided his time between the two places according to the directions of his Superiors. He closed his useful life at La Celle on the 22d of July 1656. [Council B St Edmund's 31, 72]

$CLVIII BARLOW, Rudesind +1656-09-19

F Rudesind Barlow of the ancient family of that name in Lancashire was professed at the Monastery at Cella Nova in Gallicia, and having taken his degree of Doctor of Divinity, was sent by his Spanish Superiors in 1611 to assist his brethren at Doway. [F Baker on the Mission 519] Some time after F Leander was appointed Vicar General, he appointed Dr Barlow Prior of St Gregory's in 1614; and whilst he was filling this important Office he was elected one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union which was afterwards confirmed by Paul V on the 23d of August 1619.

More than a year however elapsed before President Leander and the Definitors proceeded to the election of the Priors, and Dr Barlow was not superseded in his Office till the beginning of the year 1621. [See St Gregory's Prof Book 93. During the seven years of Dr Barlow's Priorship he professed 30 Choir Monks. During his second Priorship in 1625 he professed 4 Choir Monks.] The meeting of the first General Chapter followed in the course of the ensuing summer, at which Dr Barlow was promoted to the Office of President of the Congregation. A stormy quadriennium ensued. F Francis Walgrave and F John Barnes, who had been professed of the Spanish Congregation, not only refused to join the Union, but passed over to the Cluny Congregation and entered upon a violent and painful contest with the Superiors of the Congregation and left nothing untried to annoy and molest them. These contentions were not terminated when the term of Dr Barlow's Office was expired. At the meeting of the General Chapter of 1625, he was again called to the Priorship of St Gregory's and in consequence of the first and second elect President not leaving England to be installed at St Gregory's, as the laws of the Congregation then prescribed, he continued to discharge the Office of President also, not knowing but what one of them might come over to his charge.

During this quadriennium Dr Barlow had the satisfaction to bring the contentions with his two former brethren to a successful termination. But another source of contention had arisen which he had no right to have anticipated. Dr Smith, the new Vicar Apostolic in England, had previous to his promotion to the Episcopacy, always expressed himself friendly to the privileges of Regulars, and had in consequence been recommended by them to Rome as a candidate whom they approved of. But no sooner had he entered upon his Office of Vicar Apostolic, than he began to insist upon them asking his approbation to receive the confessions of the laity and to administer the parochial Sacraments.

It would have been unreasonable to suppose the Regulars would acquiesce and submit to the wishes of the Vicar Apostolic. The Benedictines had all along received the strongest assurances from the most ancient of the Secular Clergy, even Dr Smith had coincided with them, that they should not be disturbed in the possession of their privileges [Dr Barlow apud Weldon II 92 Neque enim negare potest Reverendissimus quam magnifice de ipsins dignitate non solum senserimus, verum etiam testimoniis amplissimis sepius manifestaverimus; nec quanta cum sinceritate et accuratione postulatis cleri secularis in Episcopo sibi procurando cooperati fuerimus nec denique quam solemniter, etiam in scriptis promiserint nobis ipsius cleri secularis primates (qui causam hanc Romae prosecuti sunt) sese Regularibus nullo modo molestiam de privilegiis aut facultatibus exhibituros, nobis praesertium; sed omni potius genere officiorum manifestaturos, quam gratum illis fuisset obesquium nostrum.] and even since the appointment of the present Vicar Apostolic, Urban VIII had confirmed the Breve of Paul V on August 21st 1626, and forbidden them to receive faculties from any one except the President of the English Congregation. [The Breve of Urban VIII August 21 1626 See Record XXVI 67 says Ac nulli omnino liceret, nisi dicto Praesidi, vel licentium ad hoc ab illo habenti facultates aliquas Missionis Apostolica pro praedicto Regno Anglia alicui Monacho Anglo Ordinis et Congregationis Hispanicae et Angliae et Anglica hujusmodi in posterum concedere vel delegare.] Under these circumstances an Appeal to the Court of Rome was inevitable. A learned and acrimonious controversy ensued. Dr Barlow and the Regimen addressed a long argumentative letter to their subject beginning with Mandatum in which they undertook to prove that Regulars employed in England with Faculties from the Apostolic See were not bound to obtain the approbation of the Vicar Apostolic for the administration of Sacraments. This letter probably composed in great measure by Dr Barlow contained some violent and objectionable passages and was forwarded to Rome by the Vicar Apostolic and appears to have been disapproved of. [Dodd III 157 produces a letter written by order of the Nuncis at Paris March 8 1629 in which the Bishop of Chalcedon is informed, `The Nuncio told me that his Holiness and the Congregation, after the book had been examined, did censure it; and condemn it, as scandalous and erroneous; and therefore decreed, that the book should be suppressed and the printed copies of it burned wheresoever they were found. And for that purpose he commanded me to signify unto you, that it is his Holiness's pleasure that you should endeavour there as much as lies in your power, to suppress the aforesaid book, and procure that all copies of it in England be burned.' Yet Urban VIII in his Breve Britannia two years later says, Non equidem hactenus eorum voluminum ullum perinde ac impietatis rerum, consura Pontificis damnavit: tamen eorum consuram et examen ad nos spectare declarantes volumus omnes eos libros ad praesentem dissensionem quolibet modo pertinentes, et quocumque idiomate scriptos, e fidelium manibus extorqueri, tanquam faces discordiae, et flabella seditionis.] Some years passed before the Court of Rome came to a decision against the claims of the Vicar Apostolic in favour of the privileges of Regulars. In the mean while Dr Barlow vacated the Presidentship at the Chapter of 1629, and was elected the first Cathedral Prior of Coventry from which he was afterwards released at his earnest request at the Chapter of 1641.

The contentions in which Dr Barlow was engaged during the eight years of his Presidentship appear to have produced a strong impression upon his mind; for from this time we find he would never accept any active Office in the Congregation. During the remainder of his life, he was generally appointed a Definitor Judge and declined his promotion to the Priorship of St Gregory's at the Chapter of 1633.

This emminent Father continued to live a Conventual at St Gregory's, subject to each succeeding Prior of the Convent, and devoted his time to study and literature. For forty years he read lectures in Divinity in the College of St Vedast at Doway and had the satisfaction to be able to number many of the most eminent Bishops, Abbots and Professors of his time among his former disciples. As a Canonist he stood high and as a scholastic divine he ranked amongst the first of his age.

Though Dr Barlow was a most humble man and appears to have refused more than once the offer both of the Mitre and the Abbatial dignity; yet it was his misfortune to have entered upon a contest with F Placid Gascoigne the President which became the subject of the deliberations of the Chapter of 1653. As this serious misunderstanding had been carried to a great height during the whole of the preceding quadriennium in which Dr Barlow had been the first Definitor Judge; and as their disputes had been noised abroad and had given rise to considerable scandal, the Fathers of Chapter determined to interfere and endeavour to put an end to them. F Claudius White, the President Elect, was directed to represent to both the danger which the Congregation had incurred through the unhappy contentions which had continued between them: And without condemning or approving of the proceedings of either party to admonish them of the scandalous reports which had arisen, and the peril which the Congregation had been brought into, in consequence of their disputes and contentions; and to call upon them without coming to any decision as to which was the guilty party to deplore these divisions which were so detrimental to the Congregation. The sentence of so many prudent and learned Fathers was received with the greatest submission and resignation; and both mutually agreed to lay aside all contention in future and to bury the past in oblivion. [Acts of Chapter 1653 Septr 9]

This was the last Chapter which Dr Barlow lived to see, and before it was concluded, he was elected the Cathedral Prior of Canterbury which he wished to resign. But upon the President, in the name of the assembled Fathers begging of him not to refuse this proof of their esteem and gratitude, he reluctantly acquiesced in their wishes.

This learned and eminent man piously ended his days in his Convent the 19 of September 1656 in the 72d year of his age and was buried in the Church of St Gregory's before his stall on the right side of the Choir. A marble slab marked the spot on which the following words were written Sub hoc lapide recondita jacent ossa RAP Rudesindi Barlo Ecclesiae Christi Cantuariae totius Angliae Matricis Prioris Cathedralis STD ejusdemque per annos 40 Professoris eximii, qui postquam 39 an: vel totius Congregationis Praesidis, vel Definitoris aut hujus Conventus Prioris officiis laudabiliter perfunctus, tandem in senectute bona 19 Sept An D 1656 mortuus est, aet sua 72 Conversionis 51 Sacerdotii 48. [Weldon I 387 who tells us in his Notes, `that after the death of this renowned Monk a Bishop sent to the Fathers of Douay to offer them an establishment, if they would but make him a present of the said Fathers writings. But in vain they were sought for; for they were destroyed by an enemy.'] The only work which he appears to have published was the letter to his Subjects beginning Mandatum against the claims of Dr Smith the Bishop of Chalcedon. His writings in Manuscript appear to have been destroyed some time after his death.

$CLIX SELBY OR READE, Wilfrid +1657-02-18

F Wilfrid Selby or Reade de S Michaele [F Leander writes to secretary Windebank Our Procurator called Richard Reade (Br Wilfrid) but because the Italians can hardly pronounce that name he took the name of John Wilfrid Selby. Clarendon's State Papers 160 Vol I F Wilfrid was ordered by Chapter in 1629 to compile the Lessons for the English Saints Acts I 21] of the ancient family of that name, was born in the County of Durham and was professed at St Gregory's on the 21st of March 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. This eminent Father was sent as Procurator to Rome in 1629 and was continued in that Office till Chapter 1645. During this period he rendered the most signal service to his Congregation by obtaining for it the celebrated Bull Plantata and many other Breves from Urban VIII by whom he was held in great esteem. At the Chapter of 1641 he was honoured with the Cathedral Priorship of Chester. And although he wrote to the following Chapter of 1645 that he might not be elected to any Office during the quadriennium, yet no attention was paid to his request and he was elected the President of the Congregation. As soon as his election was announced F Paul Robinson, being commissioned to act for him, resigned the Office in his name, but this resignation was unanimously rejected. And the Regimen were authorized to impose an order of obedience upon him to accept it, if it should be found necessary. At the same the Chapter left him free to reside where he pleased out of England. [Acts of Chapter 1645 August 23 and 28]

Abbot Cajetan had given the College of St Gregory's at Rome to the Congregation in 1638. And as F Wilfrid took a lively interest in this establishment and was allowed to embark upon it on his own personal responsibility, he not only continued to reside there during his Presidentship, but after the expiration of his term of Office, he remained there during the remainder of his life and became involved in pecuniary difficulties.

On the death of Abbot Clement Reyner the Conventuals of Lamspring elected F Wilfrid his successor. But this eminent man was void of all ambition to govern others. At the same time being aware of the powerful machinations of those Lutheran Nobles, who envied the English Benedictines the possession of the Abbey and who only waited the first favourable opportunity to wrest it from their hands, he felt he had now an opportunity of defeating their projects; so he resigned the Abbey into the hands of the reigning Pontiff Innocent X, and through the policy of this measure, he probably secured its lasting possession; because F Placid Gascoigne who was appointed Abbot on his recommendation by the Pope would be supported in his charge by the Civil and Ecclesiastical tribunals of the Country. [Townson 154]

After F Wilfrid had rendered this service to his brethren, he endeavoured to complete the buildings at the College of St Gregory's, and shortly before his death he offered to resign it into the hands of the Congregation: but before this measure came to be deliberated at the approaching Chapter, this humble and eminent man was swept away by a pestilence at Rome on the 18th of February 1657.

His works are

[Weldon I 332 Mention is made of printing one of his works in the Acts of Chapter 1653 Septr 13 Proponente RA Praeside ut secundum Definitiones Libri AR Joannis Wilfridi per unumquemque Conventum et Provincias in Anglia distrahantur certo precio et numero. What work this was is not stated. The Acts of 1661 Septr 5 Make mention of his Life of St Scholastica, and the Convents and Provinces had to take a certain number of copies to pay £30 which he owed. Weldon I 58 tells us he printed a work at Rome in 1657 which contained the Life of F Maurus Scott which I have inserted in the 2d Vol of this Biography. What was the title of this work I don't know. I have omitted to state in his life that he wrote to the Chapter of 1645 Acts August 23. Ut si qui nominentur ad gradus suscipiendos de eo mentio non fiat so anxious was this humble man to pass unnoticed through life.]

1 A Defence of Boniface VIII

2 The life of St Scholastica

3 The claims of John Jerson against Thomas a Kempis for the authorship of the Following of Christ

4 He assisted Abbot Cajetan in his edition of the Works of Peter Damian.

[Addenda No XI: No XI Page 130 On the proposition of President Gascoigne at the Chapter in 1653 August 28th Decretum est ut gratiae agantur nomine Capituli A.R.P.Joanni Wilfrid Ex-Praesidi pro tot annorum cura infatigabili pre Communi Congregationis nostrae bono. Few Fathers have ever deserved this mark of gratitude for their eminent services to the Congregation. At the following Chapter in 1657 the subject of St Gregory's College at Rome, which F Wilfrid had offered to resign into the hands of the Congregation was taken into consideration. It was finally determined that the President and Regimen should be authorized to accept of it and to pay him £600 provided he could give them the full dominion over it, so as to be able to dispose of it as any other Convent of the Congregation, and provided he could hand it over to them free of all incumbrances. See Acts of Chapter Vol I 285. But at the time this decision was come to, F Wilfrid had been swept away by the Plague at Rome, although the sad tidings had not reached them.]

$CLX WAKE OR MERRIMAN, Hilarion or John +1657-02-20

F Hilarion Wake or John Merriman was born at Carryhouse in the County of Durham and was professed at St Gregory's on the 23d of October 1639 during the Priorship of F Joseph Frere. [After the Chapter in 1645 he proceeded to Lamspring to assist Abbot Clement Reyner in commencing his Convent and was appointed Junior Master.] He acted as Secretary to the General Chapter of 1649; and on the death of F Placid Cary in the beginning of the year 1653 he succeeded him as Secretary to the President. At the ensuing Chapter, during the summer of that year, he was elected a Praedicator Generalis and was continued in the Office of Secretary to the President. He proceeded to Rome as Procurator where he was carried off by the plague on the 20th of February 1657.

$CLXI HAMES, Maurus +1657-04-22

F Maurus Hames probably F Maurus of the Holy Cross, was professed at the Convent of Chelles by F Francis Walgrave and joined him in his attempt to promote the Cluny Congregation. On their expulsion from Chelles, he sought a reconciliation with his former brethren: he was residing at St Edmund's and was sent to St Malo's in 1627. [Council B St Edmund's 32] and was incorporated into that Convent on the 24th of April 1630 [Weldon I 172] Here he continued till his death on April 22 1657.

$CLXII SHIRBURNE, James +1657-04-25

F James Shirburne de S Gregorio was born near Whaley in Lancashire and was professed of the Spanish Congregation at St Gregory's on the 21st of March 1614 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. After he had finished his Theology he was ordained Priest and sent with F Robert Sherwood to the Convent at Chelles; thence he passed to the Convent of St Malo's and after some time to the Mission. He appears to have returned again to his Convent and on being ordered again to the Mission he was taken on his landing and thrown into prison where he confuted some Ministers who were sent to dispute with him. Having regained his liberty, he continued his Missionary labours and died on the 25 of April 1657. [Prof of St G 26]

$CLXIII PRITCHARD, Maurus or Nicholas +1657-07-31

F Maurus or Nicholas Pritchard de S Nichalao of Monmouthshire was professed at St Gregory's on the 15 of August 1620 during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. He was a pious labourer on the Mission and assisted at the General Chapter of 1649 as Procurator of Canterbury and died at Rouen on his journey to the Chapter in 1657 having been elected the Cathedral Prior of Durham by the President and Definitors in 1650. He closed his life on the 31st of July 1657 [Weldon I 387] having proceeded to the Mission in 1633 [Weldon I 664]

$CLXIV CLIFFE OR COWPER, Ildephonsus +1657-nd

F Ildephonsus Cliffe or Cowper de S Maria, a Secular Clergyman, who had been banished on account of his religion took the Habit at Claremont on December 18th 1613 and was professed after his year of probation on 15th of Feby 1615 a member of the Convent of St Gregory's during the Priorship of Dr Barlow. For some time after he resided at St Edmund's and then at St Gregory's. He acted as Secretary to the General Chapter of 1629 and was dispensed with attending the Morning Office by the Fathers of Chapter during the following quadriennium in order that he might beat liberty to devote himself to the compositions of sermons. [Weldon I 719] He afterward passed to the Mission. At the Chapter of 1653 when he was an old man, he was declared by the Definitor Electors to be canonically chosen the Prior of St Malo's. The Fathers deliberated whether to proceed to another Election on account of his infirmities and his little experience in the observance of the duties of Conventual life. On the following day F Gabriel Brett petitioned in the name of the Convent of St Malo's for F John Meutisse, the Prior Elect of St Edmund's, to be the Prior of St Malo's. This petition was granted so that the election of F Ildephonsus was superseded. [Acts of Chapter 1653 Septr 15th-16th] The old man appears to have died before the Chapter of 1657.

$CLXV HUNGATE, Gregory +1657-10-18

F Gregory Hungate de S Gregorio born of an ancient family of that name in Yorkshire was professed of the Spanish Congregation at the House hired of the Trinitarians in Doway in 1610 during the Priorship of F Augustine Bradshaw. [Prof Book St Gregory's] Being well versed in sacred literature, he was sent to the Mission, where he laboured with great zeal during the remainder of his life. At the Chapter of 1653 he was elected Provincial of York and died before the expiration of the term of his Office. [From the Acts Septr 13 we find that F Gregory petitioned Chapter to decline the Office of Provincial, but his resignation was not accepted. As F Augustine Hungate deputed to that of 1657 as Provincial of York F Gregory must have been dead. The Necrology tells us that F Gregory Hungate died on the 4th of September without stating the year and that F Robert Hungate died October 18th 1657. Weldon I 392 tells us that F Robert Hungate a Spanish Monk died in 1657, but does not name the month. To me it appears that F Robert and F Gregory are the same person; because in the list of those who received Faculties from President Leander in 1619 See Record X 466 the name of F Gregory Hungate appears, but not that of F Robert, which undoubtedly would have appeared as he was professed of the Spanish Congregation, if he had been a different person.

$CLXVI ROE, Maurus +1657-08-20

F Maurus Roe brother to the martyr of that name was professed at St Laurence's in 1626 during the Priorship of F Laurence Reyner. In addition to his other good qualities he is noted for being an excellent singer. This religious man died at St Malo's on the 20th of August 1657. [Weldon I 391]

$CLXVII WARNFORD OR WEST, Peter +1657-08-21

F Peter Warnford or West was a Secular Clergyman and received the holy Habit on the Mission in England and long hesitated on account of his wavering mind to take the vows. This Father paid the debt of nature on the 21 of August 1657 [Prof St G 66. Weldon I 387] and bequeathed the relic of the holy Thorn which had belonged to the famous Abbey of Glastonbury to the Benedictine Body. This relic was carefully kept by the Dean of Rosary in London until the Revolution in 1688. [From a letter printed in the Parliamentary rebellion to the Bishop of Chalcedon from one of his clergy in 1643, `I must not omit to certify your Lordship that I have inserted Mr Peter Warnford's name among those whom are suggested here to be made Canon and I should humbly desire he may be made such for one main reason above others that I have a probable hope thereby to secure the Chapter of the holy Thorn after his decease and that is a jewel which I am sure your Lordship values at a high rate as do all other who know thereof.' Weldon's Notes 176. Mr Birdsall in Book A says that some papers {added immediately} see Addenda No III: Of affairs regarding the Secular Clergy of England and amongst others the above Letter was printed at London in 1643. If this Letter be authentic, it would appear pretty evident that F Peter Warnford or West was never a professed Benedictine. The Profession Book of St Gregory's 66 says, He took the Habit in England (which would be about the year 1619, from the place wherein his name appears in the Profession Book though there be no date to it) and having finished his Noviceship petiit dimitti sed ita ut ad huc dubitetur an non teneatur ad professionem ob ipsius incertam animam. His name appears amongst those who received Faculties from President Leander on the 19th of September 1619. Record IX 466. If then it be correct that he was proposed to be one of the Bishop's Canons more than twenty years after this, it is very improbable that he would continue a Novice all this time, and it is not at all probable that he would have been proposed to be a Canon in the state of party feeling of the times, if he had been a Benedictine. The fact recorded of his having bequeathed the Holy Thorn to the Benedictines at his death is rather corroborative of his not being a Benedictine himself, otherwise it would have belonged to them previously. His name appears in the Necrology; but this proves little, as his name might have been inserted out of gratitude for his bequest, in the same manner as the name of Herbert Croft on the 10th of April who certainly was not a Benedictine. Weldon tells us he was commonly called the Child.]

$CLXVIII GASCOIGNE, Michael +1657-10-17

D Michael Gascoigne younger brother to F Placid the Abbot of Lamspring was professed at St Edmund's on January 15th 1622 for the Convent of St Gregory's during the Priorship of F Leander. This active and laborious Missioner was elected Secretary to the General Chapter of 1641 and acted as Procurator in the North Province for many years. He paid the debt of nature on October 17 1657 [Weldon I 391, 392] at Witton Castle in Northumberland. [York Province Accounts 12 There was a Lawsuit with Mr John Thornton of Witton Castle about his money]

$CLXIX WITHAM, Michael +1657-12-12

F Michael [William*] Witham was born at Clyff in Yorkshire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 2nd of February 1636 during the Priorship of F Joseph Frere. He died December 12th 1657 on the Mission in Yorkshire. [York Prov Acc 9 Paid Thomas Bayles of Barnard Castle in part of a Bond due to him from Mr W Witham]

$CLXX SALKELD, Bernard +1658-03-09

F Bernard Salkeld of a family of note in Cumberland was an industrious Missioner and died in the North of England on March 9 1658. [Prof B St G 12] He was professed of St Gregory's.

$CLXXI CROWTHER, Mark or John +1658-03-14

F Mark or John Crowther, elder brother of F Anselm Crowther, was born in Shropshire and was professed of the Spanish Congregation at the House hired of the Trinitarians in Doway on the 14th of September 1609, during the Priorship of F Augustine Bradshaw. For some time he lived at Dieuleward before he proceeded to the Mission where he laboured with great zeal and was imprisoned for half a year on account of his religion. Afterwards he was held in great esteem when he resided among the Mountains of Gloucestershire. [Prof B St G 12*] At the Chapter of 1625 he was elected Provincial of Canterbury. After the expiration of his term of Office [The name of John Broughton appears in Records Vol I 149 as Superior in October 1631] he continued long a Missioner; but some time before his death he was removed to Lamspring where he died in a good old age on the 14 of March 1658. [Weldon I 392 tells us that F John Crowther and F Mark Crowther were two distinct persons. I consider they were the same person, because in the list of those who received Faculties from President Leander in 1619 See Record X 466 the name of Mark Crowther appears but not that of F John Crowther which undoubtedly would have appeared as he was then professed of the Spanish Congregation if he had been a different person.]

$CLXXII TENANT, Anthony +1658-05-09

Anthony Tenant a Laybrother died May 9 1658.

$CLXXIII TAHON, William +1658-05-15

William Tahon a Laybrother died May 15 1658.

$CLXXIV BRADSTOCK, John +1658-05-20

Br John Bradstock died May 20 1658 probably a Laybrother.

$CLXXV CHANDLER, Boniface +1660-01-16

F Boniface Chandler was professed at St Laurence's before the Union. The learned canonist was the associate of F Clement Reyner and shared his labours in Germany in his attempt to get possession of the various Monasteries which were given to the English Benedictines of the Bursfeld Congregation. On the acquisition of Lamspring he was appointed Cellerarius and continued to devote his services to that Convent till his death on the 16 of January 1660. [Weldon I 392 who says he died in 1660]

$CLXXVI BARNES, John +1661-12-10

F John Barnes of Lancashire was educated for a time in the University of Oxford until he became a convert to the Catholic religion. He then proceeded to Spain to pursue his Philosophy and Divinity under the celebrated Doctor Don John Alphonso Curiel, who was wont to call Barnes by the name of John Huss, because of a spirit of contradiction, which was always observed in him. [See his life Wood's Athenae II 500] After he had finished his course of Studies he took the religious Habit at the Monastery of St Bennet's at Valladolid and was professed on the 21st of March 1605. He was ordained Priest on the Vigil of St Matthias in 1608 [See Records Vol II 72 at the end of this Biography] and was sent some time after to the Convent of St Laurence's where he taught Divinity and was considered a profound Divine. In 1611 he accompanied F Gabriel Gifford to St Malo's to begin a new Convent there. He did not remain here long before he was called to Doway and appointed Superior of Marchienne College and gained great credit by the able manner in which he delivered his course of Lectures in Divinity. Such was the high esteem in which he was held that he was appointed by the Spanish Chapter in 1613 one of the two advisers or assistants to F Leander the Vicar General and continued in this Office till 1617. During the contentions which were going on at this period in the affair of the Union he sided with the Spanish party in advocating the continuance of the authority of the Spanish General, and shared in all their prejudices against the old English Congregation. [See Reyner's Appendix No XIX] Entertaining a high opinion of his own abilities and ambitious of notoriety he probably felt his pride wounded, when he found he was not chosen one of the nine Definitors to draw up the terms of the Union. It is certain at least a great change came over him about that period and the whole tenor of his conduct goes to prove he acted as a disappointed man.

On the promulgation of the Union in 1619 he refused to join it; yet he met with great kindness from President Leander who granted him permission to take the degree of Doctor, which afterwards he did at Rheims in 1621, and also to accept the Benefice of St Profectus belonging to the Cluny Congregation, provided he held it for the good of the English Mission, and under the authority of his regular Superiors. [Record XV 38-42 and Biographical Records Vol II 74] In order to prosecute his claim to this Benefice with greater success he made a profession for the sake of form before F Francis Walgrave, who now styled himself the Prior of St Pancras, as a member of the Cluny Congregation. But when the Spanish General required all those who were professed of the Spanish Congregation to submit to the Superiors of the English Congregation, he at first questioned the authenticity of his Mandate, and then appealing from his decision to the Spanish Chapter, he passed to the Convent at Chelles and joined F Francis Walgrave, boldly declaring he had joined the Cluny Congregation, and setting the authority of his Superiors at defiance. [Weldon I 108]

He now stood forth the champion of the Cluny Congregation and strenuously pursued with incessant attacks the Congregation which he had so irregularly left, and against which he had imbibed the strongest antipathy. He published a work in answer to F Edward Maihew's entitled Trophea Benedictinorum in which he denounced the late erection of the English Congregation as chimerical and the Breve of confirmation of Paul V as surreptitious; and boldly asserting there never had been a Benedictine Congregation in England previous to the Reformation he undertook to prove that the English Benedictines had always been subject to the Cluny Congregation.

The irregularity of the proceedings of F John Barnes and of F Francis Walgrave in passing over to the Cluny Congregation was taken up by Dr Barlow, the President, who directed F Bernard Berington, his Vicar in France, and F Sigebert Bagshaw the Prior of St Edmund's, to bring the case of these two Fathers before the Abbot of Cluny and the Cardinal Nuncio at Paris; and to force them to clear themselves of Apostasy from the Congregation in which they were professed. This proceeding, which he might have anticipated, either wounded their pride or roused their spleen, and gave rise to one of those ludicrous acts which must have sunk their reputation in general estimation. Affecting to claim jurisdiction over the English Benedictines as members of the Cluny Congregation, F John joined F Francis Walgrave, the titular Prior of St Pancras, which had been the principal Convent of the Cluny Congregation in England until the dissolution of religious houses under Henry VIII, and issued a sentence of excommunication against the President and Definitors of the English Congregation and the whole Convent of St Edmund's at Paris.

[See the Mandate of the Spanish General Record XXX 74. Also Dr Barlow's Letter on this excommunication dated Novr 3d 1623 Record XX 56 In this he says Alter vero P Joannes nunquam bene se habet nisi quando temeraria agit: nam a tempore quo 1o Apostatavit et tanquam apostata fuit in Capitulo receptus; nudis et cancellatis brachiis manipulos virgarum tenens in manibus suis videtur Religiosos et religionem odio habere. Deus det ei sanam mentem, multi enim existimant hominem delirare, alias non potest facere quae fecit, (1) Apostatando, (2) Seculariter per novem annos vivendo, (3) libellos famosos propter turpe lucrum contra suos fratres scribendo, (4) iterum apostatando, (5) redeundo ad Congregationem quam reliquit nihil dicendo Superioribus, (6) contra suam conscientiam fingendo causas ut excommunicet Superiorem suum. Nonne ista arguunt delirium et insaniam. It will now probably be impossible to make out at what time these Apostasies took place. I conceive the Novem annos to be a mistake of the copyist; otherwise his first apostasy must have taken place as early as 1614 whereas up to the meeting of the Definitory in 1617 F John Barnes continued one of the assistants of F Leander, the Vicar General and joined him in all the measures of the Spanish Party. See Reyner's Appendix Nos XIII, XVIII, XIX. Dr Gifford's Letters Record XVI 42 and F Leander's Letters Record XV 40 bear honourable testimony to his merit up to 1620]

As soon as this preposterous act was notified to the President, he treated it with the contempt it deserved and directed F Bernard Berington to proceed with the prosecution before the Nuncio. And F John, dreading the decision of the Nuncio would be against him, returned for a time to the obedience of the Spanish General; but soon after threw off again his allegiance to him.

In the mean while F Alvarus de Soto, the Spanish General, had been informed of the arrogant pretention of these two Fathers; and in a public instrument he reprobated their tenerity and folly in attempting to excommunicate their own Superiors. He condemned the presumption of F John Barnes in assuming the title of assistant which he declared he never was entitled to, [F Leander the Vicar General gives the title of assistant to F John Barnes from 1613 to 1617 as can be seen in Reyner in many places] and which if he had been he would undoubtedly have vacated at the expiration of four years. [Reyner Tract III 216] As F John had returned to his obedience, he addressed a second Mandate to him personally in which he ordered him in virtue of a formal precept and under the pain of excommunication to place in the hands of Thomas Callot, an Apostolic Notary, then resident in Paris, a written testimony expressing his willingness to obey him as his Superior within six days after the knowledge of this precept should be notified to him; and unless he complied, he authorized the Apostolic Notary instantly to denounce him; and if at any future time he should refuse to give a written proof of his obedience, as often as he should be required by F Romanus Grossier, a professed monk of St Malo's, then resident in the Convent at Paris, whom he appointed his Procurator in this business, he was publicly to denounce him as contumacious rebellious an Apostate from his obedience and excommunicated. [Record XXI Vol I 59-61]

In answer to this precept, F John declared he had hitherto obeyed and was prepared to obey the present General and his Successors according to the laws of the Spanish Congregation. But he must have been labouring under some strange delusion or infatuation, since he persisted in assuming the title of Assistant or Definitor, and objected to F Romanus Grossier being appointed the Procurator of his Superior, on the ground he was his own subject and stood notoriously excommunicated by him, and further declared he was prepared to bring him to account at his own time before a legitimate Judge. [Record XXI Vol I 59-61]

Having thrown off again all subjection to the Spanish General, he joined F Francis in doing his worst to annoy the Convent at Paris, and if possible to break it up; but failing in their attempts, they published certain Works under fictitious titles, both in Latin and French, which teemed with calumnies and falsehood against their former brethren and against their proceedings in the affair of the Union. These were brought before the Court of Rome by F Sigebert Bagshaw, who had been despatched by the President to act as the Procurator of the Congregation in this important business, and in every point he gained a complete victory over his opponents. Their publications were condemned and inserted in the index. All their objections raised against the Union were examined into and pronounced to be of no weight; and Urban VIII the reigning Pontiff issued a Breve confirming what his Predecessor had done, and declaring that Paul V in his Breve had spoken of a real Congregation of Benedictines which he had again established in England. [Record XXVI Vol I 66] About the same time this Breve appeared, the Work which the Benedictines had been engaged with was published under the title of Reyner's Apostolatus Benedictinorum. In this the independence of the old English Congregation was established beyond cavil or contradiction; and its dependence on the Cluny Congregation was shown to be groundless. The unfair and wilful perversion of facts and the calumnies of their opponents were exposed and denounced in no measured terms. And the whole affair of the Union was shown to have been regular in all its proceedings.

The contest of the Benedictines with their former brethren had continued during the period of five or six years and in every important point of attack they had been triumphant; but before this contest had been brought to this successful issue, F John had been put upon his defence and a fearful retribution ultimately followed.

This misguided man had all along during this contest been residing at the Convent at Chelles and devoting his time to the composition of several Works. Besides those he published against the Benedictines, he composed a Treatise on Equivocation, in which he chiefly attacked F Persons and Lessius. Whilst he stood on very slippery ground himself, self preservation should have taught him to have made friends instead of raising an active and powerful religious Body in arms against him. But conceited of his own talents and feeding his vanity with the eclat he should gain by contending against the learning of the Society, he scorned the ordinary rules of discretion and gave his Work to the public: He had thoughts of dedicating it to King James, but changing his mind, he dedicated it to the Pope. When he forwarded a Copy to his Holiness, he presented also a petition, in which he declared he had formerly obtained the sanction of Paul V to join the Cluny Congregation; but owing to the measures which the Benedictines were taking to force his removal from the Convent at Chelles he solicited a confirmation of the grant of his predecessor. [See his Petition to Urban VIII Record XXVIII 72 It seems very questionable whether he had ever obtained the consent of Paul V to join the Cluny Congregation. His assertion is not supported by any documents which we have.]

It has already been stated that F Alvarus de Soto, the Spanish General, had already denounced excommunication against him; and that his Works had been censured at Rome; so that owing to these causes and perhaps others the Benedictines at Paris were attempting through the Ecclesiastical Authorities to compel him to submit. They succeeded, but through what process we are not acquainted in forcing him from the Convent at Chelles. For a time he took up his abode at the Abbey of St Martin's de Pontoise near Paris; but he was not allowed to remain long there. As soon as the Abbot was warned of the scandal which would be taken, and the danger to which his Community would be exposed of being infected in their principles in harbouring a person whose Works were condemned by the holy See, he sent peremptory Orders to his Prior to dismiss him without ceremony. [See Record XXIX Vol I 73] After this he remained some time in Paris protected by the English Ambassador.

Whilst this unfortunate man had found it difficult to obtain shelter in a safe retreat, the Spanish Chapter had been held in 1625, and F Gregory Parcero, the new Spanish General, had addressed a Mandate to all his English Subjects in which he declared that the transition of F John Barnes and F Francis Walgrave to the Cluny Congregation had taken place without even asking the permission of their Superiors. And then, summing up their crying misdeeds, he gave them a formal precept of obedience under the pain of incurring excommunication, to return to the obedience of the Spanish Congregation and to give a written proof of their submission before two Public Notaries. To show, however, that he was not actuated by unworthy motives, he directed the Superiors of the English Congregation to receive their brethren fraternally, forbade them to inflict any punishment or molest them for their past acts, and ordered them to be placed in the same position which they held before they withdrew their obedience. [See the Mandate of the Spanish General Record XXX 74] Both Fathers treated this precept of their Superior with neglect or contempt.

Dr Barlow the President did not allow them to remain quiet but directed F Clement Reyner who was acting as his Procurator at Paris to follow up their disobedience and cite them to appear before the Nuncio to defend themselves. [See F Clement's Letter Record XXXI 93] What was the final issue of this trial we are not made acquainted; but there is every reason to suppose that the decision was against F John and that he passed over to England in order to evade it.

For some time past he had entered into a negotiation with the learned Father Thomas Preston, Fr Michael Godfrey, another English Cassin Father, Dr Edward Potter, and others in order to obtain through them the protection of the English Government. He asked for permission to reside in England, security for the performance of his religious duties, and a competent allowance from the State. In return he offered to write in favour of the Oath of Allegiance; and while he expressly stipulated to profess the Roman Catholic faith and communion, he undertook to show from Catholic writers that England, under the circumstances of the times, was fully justified in discarding the authority of the Roman Court. [See the Correspondence Record XXXI 80- 94 In his letter to a Nobleman in England, whom Mr Tierney styles Sir George Goring, he writes, Petitio mea quam proposui Domino Winwood eo spectabat: ut Majestas sua dignaretur me patrocinio ac tutela in regno suo protegere, mihique concederet personalem libertatem profitendi Catholicam Romanam Fidem et Communionem, facultatem etiam libere ac sine impedimento scribendi de illis quaestionibus quae absque prejudicio Catholicae Romanae Fidei et Communionis conducunt ad modernas controversias componendas et ad Romanae Curiae abusas tollendos. Again In cujus satisfactionem, memet obligo ad sustinendum et tuendum, ex vera Theologia, defectionem seu separationem a curia Romana, rebus sic stantibus et juramentum fidelitatis Anglicae communionis, legitimum et justum esse, secundum scriptores Ecclesiae Romanae et nostrae communionis. Mr Tierney remarks that this letter exists only in the unsatisfactory form of a Translation produced by his adversaries and accusers.]

These terms were probably accepted as he was busily engaged in Oxford in 162* in the capacity of a gentleman and sojourner in obtaining materials from the Bodleian Library towards the composition of a work in answer to Reyner's Apostolatus which he printed. He was also engaged in composing another Work entitled Catholico-Romanus Pacificus, which was not printed for years after his death. What could have induced him to leave England, or what was the precise year he left, does not appear certain. [The Chapter in 1629 decreed Ut declaretur P Joannes Barnesius nihil ad Unionem nostram pertinere.] We know he afterwards found his way to Paris, and through the endeavours of F Clement Reyner and his interest with Albert of Austria, he succeeded in having him delivered up into the hands of the Superiors of the English Benedictines. Among his Papers was found a correspondence with several parties, by which it appeared he had sought the protection of the English Government, and also a copy of the new Work which he had composed in Manuscript. He was now stigmatized as a heretic, carried out of Paris by force, divested of his religious habit, bound to a horse and violently hurried away into Flanders. Where continuing for some time, he was finally conveyed to Rome at the cost of £300 to the Benedictines [Weldon's Notes 118] and imprisoned in the dungeons of the Inquisition. Some time after becoming distracted in mind he was removed to a place for the reception of lunaticks; where after the expiration of some thirty years he closed his life on the 10 of December 1661. F Leander Normington the Procurator at Rome at the time of his death wrote of him as follows. `If he were in his wits he was a heretic, but they gave him Christian burial because they accounted him rather a madman.' [Weldon's Notes 117]

His works are,

1. Examen Trophaeorum Congregationis praetensae Anglicanae, ordinis Sancti Benedicti, Rheims 1622

2. Dissertatio contra Aequivocationes. Paris 1625

3. A Treatise of the Supremacy of Councils

4. The Spiritual Combat. A Translation from the Spanish of John Castaniza

5. His work Against the Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia by Reyner

6. Catholic-Romanus Pacificus, but as that Treatise was not printed until 1680 and was then confessedly made up from several flying Manuscripts.

See Wood's Athenae II 501 It is by no means certain that it contains what Barnes wrote.

$CLXXVII BARBIERRE, John +nd**-05-13

John Barbierre was professed a Laybrother at St Malo's where he died on the 13th of May the year is uncertain.

$CLXXVIII ROBINSON, Maurus +1662-02-02

F Maurus Robinson of Yorkshire was professed at St Edmund's on the 21st of March 1653 during the Priorship of F Francis Cape and died Missioner in the Province of York on the 2d of February 1662. [Weldon I 475 says he died Feby 2d 1662] [The expenses of his Funeral and sickness were to be divided between the North Province and the Convent of St Edmund's by the orders of the General Chapter in 1666 Acts Vol I 348*]

$CLXXIX LOVEL, Anthony +1662-03-25

Anthony Lovel was professed a Laybrother at St Laurence's before the Union and died in his Convent on the 25 of March 1662.

$CLXXX CHERITON, Basil +1662-05-11

F Basil Cheriton of Oxfordshire was professed at St Edmund's on the 24 of June 1651 during the Priorship of F Francis Cape and died in his Convent on the 11th of May 1662. He was residing at the Priory of La Celle in 1653.

$CLXXXI DUCK, Dunstan +1662-11-18

Br Dunstan Duck was professed a Choir Monk at St Laurence's in 1655 during the Priorship of F Cuthbert Horsley and closed his short life in his Convent on the 18 of November 1662.

$CLXXXII BACON, George +1663-04-04

F George Bacon, a Secular Priest, received the holy Habit in England and being professed was appropriated to the Convent of St Gregory's. He was a learned and prudent man and an excellent preacher. At the Chapter of 1653 he was elected a Praedicator Generalis. He paid the debt of nature at Little Stoke in Gloucestershire on the 4 of April 1663 aged 66. [Weldon I 416]

$CLXXXIII MARTIN, Joseph +1663-04-08

F Joseph Martin died in England on the 8 of April 1663.

$CLXXXIV DAVIS OR BENNET, Maurus or William +1663-06-09

F Maurus Davis or William Bennet, nephew to the eminent Father, F Claude Bennet of Flintshire, was professed at St Edmund's on the 8th of June 1642, during the Priorship of F Francis Cape. On the introduction of universal abstinence into his Convent in the January following he was unwilling to practise it and owing to his repeated acts of disobedience to his Prior both in private and in open Chapter he was imprisoned in the granary of the Convent. But he had not been confined long before he was rescued by two other religious and the three fled the Convent on the 21st of June 1645. [Council St Edmund's 116] On the meeting of Chapter in the course of the summer the observance of universal abstinence was laid aside. And on the urgent solicitations of Dr Barlow, it was agreed to grant a full pardon to the fugitives if they would make an humble submission and return to their Convent. [Acts of Chapter 1645 Aug 26] Br Maurus accepted of the terms and we have every reason to believe his future conduct was edifying as he was ordained Subdeacon the following year. Being ordained Priest, he was sent to the Mission and acted as Procurator in England for the Nuns of Cambray. [F Maurus Bennet was elected the Procurator of the Province of Canterbury in 1653 but excused himself from attending the General Chapter on account of his poverty. Acts of Chapter Vol I 246. From this period it was enacted that the expenses of the Procurator should be paid by the Provinces.] He assisted as a Deputy at the Chapters of 1657 and 1661 and took an active part in the deliberations of the Fathers and successfully pleaded the cause of the Nuns and obtained relief for them in their pressing necessities. The end of this Father is involved in mystery he is said to have been killed in a duel on the 9 of June 1663. [Weldon I 416]

$CLXXXV SHIRBURNE, Bede +1663-10-22

Br Bede Shirburne of Lancashire was professed a Choir Monk at St Edmund's on the 21 of September 1660 during the Priorship of F Francis Cape and was prematurely taken out of life on the 22 of October 1663.

$CLXXXVI JOHNSON OR CHAMBERS, William +1663-10-28

F William Johnson or Chambers was professed at the Monastery of St Martin's at Compostella. [We find from Reyner's Appendix XVI that F W Johnson was one of the two Assistants to the Superior of the Spanish Monks on the Mission in 1615.] On the Union being confirmed at Rome, he not only refused to join it, but pertinaciously refused to submit to the Laws and Superiors of the English Congregation, although directed to do so by the Breve of Urban VIII on the 30th of August 1626 and ordered under precept by the Spanish General. As late as 1633 he is specially named in a Mandate of the Spanish General, as one of the five refractory fathers, who would not obey his predecessors; and is again ordered under obedience and under the penalty of excommunication to promise in writing that he would obey the President as his Vicar General, and live in subjection to the laws of the English Congregation; and in case he disobeyed he is declared to be suspended from the Altar and from the exercise of all Missionary Faculties, and further ordered to repair within three months to the Convent of his Profession in Spain. [Record LXI 224] This refractory Father continued in his disobedience and persisted in setting the authority of his legitimate Superior at defiance. In the course of years he came into possession of the property of some of the English Benedictines after their decease and refused to give it up to their Convents. His General in Spain directed him to hand over this property to the English Congregation [Record LXIII 237] but this he refused to do. [May 5 1641*] The Provincial of Canterbury who had been delegated to prosecute this business gave such an account of his progress to the Chapter of 1649, that the Fathers, considering the case desperate, commissioned the Regimen with the full power of Chapter to proceed in this business further when a fitting opportunity should arise. [Acts of Chapter 1649 Sept 6] What took place after this we have now probably no means of discovering. This refractory Father died in London on the 28 of October 1663 in Lord Dorset's house in Charter House Yard aged above four score. [Weldon I 416] The Body received £1000 of his Spolia. [See the Acts of Chapter in 1685 Vol I 425 and York Province Accounts page 19 Mr Chambers Spolia £100 {sic} ordered to the North Province by the General Chapter in 1685]

$CLXXXVII SHERWOOD, Elphege or William +1663-11-10

F Elphege or William Sherwood, brother to F Robert Sherwood, was professed at St Laurence's in 1626 during the Priorship of F Laurence Reyner. He petitioned the Chapter of 1633 to proceed to the Mission but was referred to the President, to whom belonged the power of granting Faculties for the English Mission. [Acts of Chapter 1633 Aug 16] In 1641 he was Conventual for a time at St Edmund's on his return from England, [Coun B St Edmund's 85] and then returned to the Convent of his profession, where he appears to have continued till his death on the 10 of November 1663.

$CLXXXVIII ROOKWOOD, Ignatius +1663-11-10

F Ignatius Rookwood died November 10 1663.

$CLXXXIX PALMES, Bernard or George +1663-12-25

F Bernard or George Palmes was born at the Castle of Naborne in Yorkshire and was professed at St Gregory's on the 27 of December 1643 during the Priorship of F John Meutisse. He accompanied Abbot Clement Reyner after the Chapter of 1645 to Lamspring to assist him in beginning his Convent there; but during the course of the quadriennium he was sent to be Confessor to the English Benedictine Nuns at Brussels. And although the Archbishop of Mechlin petitioned the Chapter of 1649 for the continuance of his services; yet he did not obtain his request as he was ordered otherwise. [Acts of Chapter 1649 Aug 28-Sept 7] At the following Chapter of 1653 he was elected the Prior of St Gregory's and at the expiration of this quadriennium he was sent to Rome as Procurator to manage the College of St Gregory's, which the Congregation had agreed to take into its own hands upon paying F Wilfrid Selby £600. [Acts of Chapter 1657 August 22] Before this decision was come to, F Wilfrid had been carried off by the plague so that F Bernard on his arrival took possession of the College. He soon began to indulge himself in his propensity for building which compelled him without a sufficient warrant from his Superiors to take up a loan of £350 and thus involve himself in debt.

These proceedings were afterwards severely censured at the following Chapter of 1661 at which he was present. The matter was referred to a Committee. F Leander Normington a person in whose judgment the Chapter fully relied was elected Procurator; and it was ultimately determined to refer the examination of this unpleasant business to him as soon as he reached Rome: and he was directed under a precept of obedience to transmit to the President in due time a full account of the state of the College and of the conduct of his predecessor. In the meanwhile F Bernard was ordered to repair to the Convent of St Gregory's and forbidden to leave it without the special leave of the President until the charges against him were cleared up. [Acts 1661 Aug 28 and Septr 4] In the absence of documentary evidence, we may reasonably infer this investigation turned out favourably to his character, as we know he was allowed two years later to repair again to Rome. He however sickened and died on his journey on the 25 of December 1663 at a Benedictine Monastery at Gratz in Styria. [Weldon I 416] At the Chapter in 1661 he is styled Abbot of Cajetan College.

$CXC APPLETON, Laurence +1661-nd

F Laurence Appleton was born in the County of Essex and was professed at St Gregory's on the 22d of April 1635 during the Priorship of F Joseph Frere. After the Chapter of 1645 he accompanied Abbot Clement Reyner to assist him in beginning his Convent at Lamspring and was appointed Prior by him soon after his arrival. [Townson 129] At the Chapter of 1661 he was appointed Secretary to the President and died before the meeting of the following Chapter in 1666 in the South Province. [F Appleton passed to the South Province and was elected Secretary to the Provincial Chapter of Canterbury in 1661. We find a new Secretary to the President assisted at the Visit of St Laurence's on the 3d of Septr 1664]

$CXCI REYNER, Laurence +1664-04-08

F Laurence Reyner, elder brother of F Clement, Abbot of Lamspring, was born of an ancient family in Yorkshire, whose parents after having suffered an imprisonment of many years on account of their religion died at last in prison. He was educated in the English College at Doway, and was a Secular Priest when he took the Habit from F Leander on the 30th of July 1608 at the Benedictine Monastery of St Remigius at Rheims for the Convent of St Laurence's, which was to be commenced soon after. After his year of probation he was professed at Dieuleward on the 1st of August 1609. On being sent to the Mission, he was zealous in labouring for the salvation of souls, and was on more than one occasion imprisoned for his religion.

Having occasion to conduct the daughters of certain noble families across the seas to embrace a religious life, he was unanimously elected the Prior of St Laurence's when on the Continent on the death of F Columban Malon the saintly Prior in 1623, and was continued Prior at the Chapter of 1625. [Weldon I 416 and 422] However before the conclusion of that quadriennium he was deprived of his active and passive voice for refusing to receive the President's Commissaries to visit his Convent, and on account of his neglect of Conventual duties. At the succeeding Chapter of 1629, he publicly begged pardon for the faults he had committed and expressed his willingness to undergo any punishment which should be inflicted upon him. The Fathers resolved to leave him to the President for rehabilitation if he should think proper. [Weldon I 715. From Records Vol I 188 it is certain that F Laurence Reyner was Prior in May 1627.] For a time he was ordered to Cambray, and then again to the Mission in the north of England, where for many years he continued in private life, faithfully discharging the duties of a zealous Missioner.

During the five years of his Priorship he professed 4 Choir Monks. At the Chapter of 1649 he was elected the Provincial of York; and on the expiration of his term of office in 1653, he was again elected to the Priorship of St Laurence's and obtained his request to resign his Cathedral Priorship of Worcester to which he had been elected in 1641.

During the two years of his Priorship he professed one Choir Monk. On the death of F Claudius White or Bennet on October 14th 1655 F Laurence succeeded to the Presidentship having been chosen the second Elect at the preceding Chapter.

This learned and eminent man on the expiration of his Office passed once more to the Mission where he continued till he was gathered to his Fathers on the 8th of April 1664 at the great age of 82. He is recorded to have been wonderfully zealous in gaining souls to heaven, a patient sufferer of many persecutions and long imprisonments and a great promoter of regular discipline. [Weldon's Notes 182]

His works are

1. A Book on Indulgences 1623

2. The Rules of living well 1624

[In the Acts of Chapter 1661 Aug 18 there is mention of a book written by F Laurence which was to be examined by certain Deputies then appointed. What work this was I don't know. F Ellis apud Weldon I 381 writes of him Quantaque scientia pollebat magnum opus Manuscriptum (cujus autographum apud me habeo) pietate et varia doctrina refertum testatur.]

$CXCII BERINGTON, George +1664-05-19

F George Berington, brother to F Bernard, was professed in Spain. This laborious Missioner lived to the age of 88 and was blind for some time before his death, which took place at Hereford on the 19th of May 1664. [Weldon I 417] {Later pencil note MS warrant for his arrest from Bp of Hereford, Longworth Library Belmont}

$CXCIII RIBERTIERE, Bernard +1664-06-16

F Bernard Ribertiere, a native of St Malo's, was professed at St Gregory's for the Convent of St Malo's on the 14 of February 1621 during the Priorship of F Paulinus Greenwood. At the Chapter of 1641 he was elected Secretary to the President F Jocelin Elmer; but before the expiration of the quadriennium he was superseded in his Office. He became Prior of St Malo's in 1651 on the death of the Prior F Jocelin Elmer, and on the expiration of his term of Office he continued some years to live quietly in his Convent. When the Chapter of 1661 came to the determination to part with the Convent of St Malo's the Conventuals resolved to resist this resolution. And F Bede Forster the Subprior obtained a decree from the Court of Rennes, by which the Conventuals of St Malo were to elect a Prior, who should be a native of France agreeably to the ratification which the same Court had given to the King edict. [Record CIV 362] By this means he expected to set aside the election of F Thomas Anderton the Prior Elect of St Malo's; but as the General of the Maurist Congregation discountenanced his proceeding and confirmed F Thomas Anderton in his Office of Prior, he found himself baffled, and resorted to another scheme in hopes of wresting the Convent from the English Congregation. He now resigned his Office of Subprior, hoping to induce F Bernard to accept the Superiorship of the Convent in virtue of the late Decree of the Court of Rennes; but contrary to his expectations F Bernard protested he only assumed the Office of Superior in consequence of his antiquity in the Habit. [Weldon II 371]

Having failed again in procuring a Frenchman as the real and perpetual head of the Convent, F Bede began to circulate reports in the Town of St Malo, that F Francis Cape the Prior of Paris, who had been entrusted with the management of disposing of the Convent by the General Chapter, had sold it to the Jesuits. This so alarmed the inhabitants of the town, comprising a great number of Protestants, that the Syndic assembled the burgesses of St Malo and passed a Decree, which was placed in the hands of F Bernard, the Superior, directing him and his Community to stand to the terms of their establishment and forbidding them to consent to the alienation of their Convent without the consent of the inhabitants of the town and other interested parties. [Record CV 363 Vol I] This Decree did not answer the expectations of F Bede, who calculated upon the citizens demanding a Frenchman to be placed as Superior in conformity to the late Decree of the Court of Rennes, and by this means he had hoped that the Convent would have been placed under the entire jurisdiction of the Maurist Congregation.

After these repeated failures of F Bede to wrest the Convent from the English Congregation, F Bernard now proceeded to invite F Thomas Anderton to repair to St Malo's and assume the Priorship. The Prior Elect, supposing all obstacles were now removed which debarred him from entering upon his Office, and holding in his possession precepts of Obedience both from the Maurist General and the President to require the Community to receive him, accepted of the invitation and on his arrival at the Convent was well received by all the Religious with the exception of F Bede and Anselm Prodhomme. Arrangements were made for his installation and all was considered settled, when on the eve of the day fixed for him to be installed, F Bede through the exertions of his friends in the town obtained another Decree from the inhabitants to be delivered to F Bernard Ribertiere, forbidding him to receive F Thomas Anderton as Prior as contrary to their letters of establishment, which expressed that the Superior of the Convent should be a Frenchman. [Record CVI 367]

Although F Bernard had supported F Bede in his attempt to prevent the alienation of his Convent, yet up to this period he may be considered to have stood true to the English Congregation; but now he and F Anselm Williams joined F Bede in his opposition to Superiors. And notwithstanding the precepts of Obedience which the Prior Elect showed him, he and the Community refused to receive him as Prior, so that F Thomas had no alternative but to retire from the contest. Having taken the precaution of making a verbal process before a Notary of the refusal of F Bernard to receive him as Prior he repaired to Paris.

A Visitation of the Convent by the Orders of the General of the Maurist Congregation followed soon after. A compromise was effected. The Religious were prevailed to receive F Thomas Anderton as their Prior provided the people of the town withdrew their opposition to his reception, and provided they continued under the protection of the Maurist Congregation and received assurance that the Convent should not be alienated, but be furnished with additional members to enable them to discharge the duties which they were bound to perform. [Record CVII 369]

After this reconciliation F Thomas Anderton returned to St Malo's and was installed Prior by the Community with the connivance of the town during the autumn of 1662. F Michael Cape whom he appointed Subprior and F Ambrose Bride were sent to assist him in his onerous undertaking. In order to conciliate the townspeople, the new Prior admitted three French Novices to the Habit, hoping by this means to preserve the Convent to the Congregation. But he was of a scrupulous turn of mind and the cares of Office preyed upon his emaciated frame and brought upon him a dangerous illness which forced him during the summer of 1663 to withdraw from his Convent. Having appointed F Michael Cape the Prior in his absence, he left St Malo's for Lancashire to take the benefit of the air of his native county. [Weldon II 369]

Immediately after his departure, he was charged by Anselm Prodhomme, a Laybrother, who had been irregularly ordained Priest and by some others of the Community, with having left the Convent unknown to them, dressed in a Secular Habit as a Bankrupt and with having purloined property belonging to it. [Record CVIII 371] These calumnies were regularly registered before a Public Notary and another outbreak of these refractory monks followed soon after. F Michael Cape the Superior was formally deposed on account of being an Englishman and stripped of all authority. F Ambrose Bride was forced to withdraw. And F Bernard Ribertiere took upon himself the Superiority and administration of the Convent in quality of a Francois naturel according to the Decree of the Court of Rennes. [Weldon II 369]

The object of this unstable Frenchman was now to place the Convent entirely in the hands of the Maurist Congregation; or if he could not succeed in that, to break off at least all connexion with his English Superiors. To accomplish this, and to strengthen the French party in the Convent, he allowed Anselm Prodhomme to say Mass, he calculated upon the profession of the three French Novices, he flattered himself what with their assistance and the friendly cooperation of F Bede Forster and F Anselm Williams, he would be able to bring his projects to a successful issue. But whilst these plans were ripening his days were numbered, and death snatched him off from this earthly stage in the midst of his unholy enterprises on June 16th 1664.